Unit 8 Sustainable Tourism Development Assignment-Btechnd
Sustainable Tourism and Culture
Cultural tourism refers to the tourism generated by the culture in the region. The tourism generated is with respect to the lifestyle, religion and the events that attract tourist and generate interest in the understanding of the culture.
Cultural tourism is related to all the aspects of past and present of the community that it considers valuable and desires to pass on to the future generations. Heritage is valuable and cannot be recreated. Cultural tourism can encourage revival of traditions and recreation of sites and monuments. Every culture is different in itself and highlighting the key features in a culture can be used to generate interest in the culture and thus can be the sustainable tourism. For example, For most of the tourists it is the desire to experience something unfamiliar that encourage them to go to different places. This is fulfilled by the unfamiliar foreign cultures and their manifestations (Timur & Getz, 2009). Cultural tourism has long existed and is the source of tourism for many countries. Further it has been observed that the popularity of tourism involving culture and nature as attractions has increased. According to the study conducted by Stanford University cultural tourism is expected to grow by 10 to 15%. Lastly not all the countries have natural beauty to attract tourists. Others might not have infrastructure to attract adventure lovers or sport lovers. Culture is one such aspect that will always remain. Efforts are made by the government to protect historical places, buildings and heritage sites. Sustainable tourism has grown out of sustainable development as it involves development of present without compromising by way of tourism (Wall & Mathieson, 2006). Thus sustainable tourism provides an opportunity to investing in heritage sites not only to protect them but also generate revenue by attracting tourists. It will provide dual benefit to the place, government and the people.
Cultural tourism will not only be important in the development of sustainable tourism but will also be helpful in protecting the historical sites and at the same time protect the certain aspects of culture such as language, dresses, dance forms and tradition practices. This is because these aspects will be source of income.
Factors affecting sustainable cultural tourism
The above discussion clearly highlights the benefit of having sustainable cultural tourism. However there are certain factors that impact the sustainable cultural tourism. Firstly the cultural tourism cannot be used to create instant demand. For example events such as sporting events or ceremonies may create instant tourism demand. Such aspects are missing in cultural tourism. Although this can be aggravated by highlighting the cultural practices backed by seasons but this would require huge efforts in terms of marketing. In case of sporting events the marketing is done at different levels, by different countries and the intended public is targeted by various agencies.
Another important aspect is that the cultural sites and building may be impacted by the tourists. For example the historical places might lose its identity due to continuous degradation due to its exposure to large population. This will increase the cost of maintenance for safeguarding the heritage sites. This is a continuous process. Such costs are not involved in organizing sporting events or other such tourism.
Huge investment is required for the development of sites and programmes for sustainable tourism that is oriented towards promoting cultural tourism. There are certain factors that can hinder the growth and the sustainability of the cultural tourism. The conditions of war, outrage or vandalism activities prove to be of huge loss for the cultural tourism. This is because of two reasons. Firstly cultural aspects are exposed and most impacted by activities like vandalism. It is very important to preserve the cultural and traditional sites and thus any act of vandalism not only result in huge cost to restore and at times lead to irreversible damages. Secondly huge arrangements are to be made to protect these sites. The historical monuments and traditional sites are part of cultural tourism and may lead to huge concern for the tourism industry. Any damage to sites related to other type of tourism such as sports and education can be reconstructed but the cultural sites are unique and once destroyed will be huge loss.
Due to absence of these factors and the lack of support certain cultures are neglected result in lack of sustainability and preservation of the cultural sites. One of the biggest examples of this is Lumbini in Nepal. The government has made efforts in this respect but lack of planning, infrastructure and tourist programs have not only impacted the historical sites in the region but also the region has not been utilised to its potential.
Stages in sustainable cultural tourism
The cultural tourism will be beneficial to the community and the region if it is implemented in a proper manner. Some of the factors that affect cultural tourism have been identified above. Considering these aspects different stages that have been identified for proper implementation and development of sustainable cultural tourism are as follows
Assess Potential: The complete evaluation of what the community has and can offer is done. These include tourist attractions, visitor services & cultural programmes and organizational capabilities.
Plan and Organize: Human and financial resource are key for success of cultural tourism making good use of these resources, setting priorities and measurable goals.
Prepare for Visitors: Based on the past experiences, the type of visitors expected to visit and the future need that can be provided and expected the complete preparation has to be done. This will ensure high tourist satisfaction
Protect and Manage Resources: This is the most major aspect of cultural tourism as the historical sites have to be preserved for long term sustainability. The future of tourist visiting the place will depend on how well the balance is maintained between the exposing of heritage site and management & protection of heritage resources
Market for Success: The effective marketing of the heritage sites, cultural programmes and tourism is important. Marketing has to be done for ensuring that target and potential visitors understand the tourist attractions and how the cultural tourism will be different from other tourist locations.
Enclave tourism refers to tourism at destination places where the tourist activities are planned in such a way that they are congregated in one small area. This results in tourists to experience travel and tourism intentions without much travelling. One example of Enclave tourism is ‘Sun N Sand’ resort in Caribbean. Enclave tourism has been discussed with respect to development of tourism, conflict resolution between stakeholders and the benefits and limitations of enclave tourism.
Development of tourism in emerging destinations
Tourism is defined as the social, cultural and economic phenomenon involving the movement of people for recreation or business purposes. The tourism development in the South American island countries such as Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago is quite significant. The various factors that are important for these countries are physical, natural and cultural aspects. The accessibility to these destinations from the majority of the tourist countries is not there. The only countries that are significant for these locations are North American nations. The major tourist countries from Europe do not have too frequent flights to these countries. This is one of major concerns.
The natural aspects highlight that these nations have enormous natural beauty and can attract many ocean lovers. Although the destination faces competition from South Asian countries in this regard but certainly is a huge asset for these nations. Further there is significant historical importance of these nations as discovery of America by Columbus and labour issues that these countries faced historically. The historical aspects related to West Indies are also quite significant.
These countries are not culturally too rich as most of the area is habited by aboriginals. However this is of interest for many students and researchers. This also contributes to the tourist activities and also increases the awareness of these tourist activities.
Conflict resolution between stakeholders
The issues are different for each of the stakeholders including local populations, the local government agencies, the destination owners and the tourists. One of the emerging tourist destinations is the island countries in South America such as Cuba and Jamaica. The issues faced by each of the stakeholders in these countries are highlighted below
The Tourists: the issues that are faced by the tourists to these countries are related to accessibility of these destinations, facilities at these destinations and security issues. The accessibility to these destinations from the majority of the tourist countries is not there. Further there might be issues related to availability of services. Lastly the security in these countries is of huge concern.
Local populations: The issues that the local population may face are that there is scarcity of resources. The scarcity includes capital and other resources such as food and essential resources like drinking water etc. The availability of resources and investment in necessary sectors will reduce. This will impact the comfort level of the local population.
The local government agencies: The local government agencies will have to face the issues of making arrangements for the funds for the development of infrastructure, provide necessary arrangements for the satisfaction of the tourists and lastly to maintain the balance between the development of infrastructure for tourists and the local public will have to be ensured. Lastly the government also faces issues with respect to policy framework. The government needs to frame policies that are favorable for the sector such as subsides for the developers and promoting the tourist destinations.
The destination owners: The destination owners need appropriate return on investments. Unless this is there the destination owners will not develop and invest in the tourism industry. The government support and necessary subsidies if necessary will have to be provided.
Moral and Ethical issues in enclave tourism
The concept of development of enclave tourism is gaining recognition in developing countries. Tourism is in a way the backbone of most of the developing nations. In the study conducted by Mbaiwa (2005), the tourism in developing nations is taking the form of enclave tourism. This is because developing nations are dependent on developed nations for their tourism industry to flourish. It results in the socio economic regional disparities in developing nations as tourism in developing nations is concentrated and organised in regions in natural surroundings in a way that suits the travellers from developed nations providing them the feel of the natural beauty and at the same time take care of the comfort. The enclave tourism is considered as the prepaid trip planned by organiser. The tour travellers and cruise are examples of enclave tourisms. Another reason that the tourism in developing nations is shifting towards enclave tourism is the requirement of foreign investments. The resorts are being developed that are funded by developed countries. These plans that are prepared related to the tourism activities have limited visits to tourist laces but provides leisure services in a cost effective way at resorts or cruise. However the important factor that has led to the development of enclave tourism in developing countries is the lack of facilities like safe drinking water, health issues, and infrastructure and security issues. Considering this the tourists prefer tour packages that will provide services which will remove all these limitations.
Thus enclave tourism has in a way resulted in developing nations owing to the need. This has resulted in several limitations. Firstly there is little benefit for the local people. Most of the tourists are confined to places they have been allocated. So all the spending is concentrated at one place. The second aspect that has been identified is that with the development of enclave tourism the foreign funding has increased which has resulted in the development of infrastructure that will support tourism industry but at the same time it will generate profits for the foreign countries where these companies are based (Anderson 2011). It results in the socio economic regional disparities in developing nations as tourism in developing nations is concentrated and organised in metropolitan regions. Thus the development of whole countries does not takes place rather small region is benefitted. Lastly the infrastructure and facilities that will be developed will not benefit the local public as it will be out of reach. The domestic tourism will not be benefitted by this.Thus the enclave tourism will have little benefit for the local population in terms of generating revenue and access to facilities (Anderson 2011). Certainly there will be benefit of increased revenue and indirect income for the country. The infrastructure will be developed and foreign investment in the region will increase. But all this will be at the cost of little benefits to the local public. Enclave tourism will benefit only clusters and that too concentrated in a certain region.Order Now