This is a solution of Unit 4 Treatment On Solid Pineapple Waste in which we discuss Developing business
Results And Discussion Assignment Help
- Biological Pre-treatment
- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Analysis
The HPLC analysis shows that the most abundant sugar which was detected in the biological pre-treatment of solid pineapple waste was fructose. The sampling was done every two days, of a total 14 days. The eight group of sampling has shown the presence of three types of sugar, which are sucrose, glucose and fructose. This shows the solid pineapple waste could recover these three sugars. The amount of glucose was minute and remained almost constant throughout the fermentation process. The amount of fructose reached about more than 14 g/L. This shows that the P. Chrysoporium might have degraded the lignin and phenolic structure structure (Pellinen et al., 1988). The following is the figure of HPLC.
- Reducing Sugar – DNS Method Analysis
The analysis from the Reducing Sugar DNS Method, sugar was present on the day 0 of the pre-treatment at the value of 3g/ L. This shows us that the untreated sample itself has some amount of sugar. There was an increasing amount of sugar starting from day 0 to day 10. After the day 10 onwards, the amount of sugar drops, this might be due to the loss or degradation of cellulose or hemicellulose during the biological pre-treatment (Johnson and Elander, 2008). The following is the graph obtained from this analysis.
- Analysis of Enzyme Activity
Based on the analysis, FPase remained almost constant throughout the fermentation process. The CMCase enzyme was much higher in activity, which was around 4 u/mg. This shows that the endoglucanases enzyme is present in the P. Chrysoporium and there is the presence of sugar. The following is the figure of enzyme activity analysis. See more : Improving Management and Business Performance
- Analysis of Cellulose
From the analysis obtained, the highest amount cellulose obtained was 42%. This percentage was obtained on the day 8 and 10. The lowest amount was recovered on day 14, which was 35%. The effectiveness of the enzyme towards cellulose depends on few factors, such as the particle size, crystallinity of cellulose and also the accessibility of the surface area of biomass (Saville, 2011). The drop of the cellulose recovery might be associated to these factors.
- Chemical Pre-treatment
In the chemical pre-treatment, alkaline and acid solution was applied with two different concentrations. In the acid pre-treatment, a small amount of sugar of 0.21 g/L was detectable from the 1% (v/v) concentration. The pre-treatment of 3% (v/v) concentration had no sugar recovery. This might be due to the property of sulphuric acid and sugar which are non-volatile. The acid causes the degradation of sugar and, furthermore, application of heat destroys the sugar (Harvey, 2010). During pre-treatment, the hemicellulose and cellulose are prone to be converted to monomers and thus leads to degradation by the acid itself (McMillan, 1992).
The alkaline pre-treatment recovered more sugar then the acid concentrations. The sugar recovery of sodium hydroxide of 1% (v/v) concentration was 0.54 g/L. The pre-treatment of 3% (v/v) concentration had no sugar recovery. This event might be caused by the high temperature, where the glucose can be destructed (Harvey, 2010). Pre-treatment of biomass by the using sodium hydroxide can cause the degradation of glucose and xylose if treated together with temperature higher than 60°C (Saville, 2011).
- Physical Pre-treatment
In the microwave pre-treatment, sodium hydroxide solution was used in two different concentrations which are 1% (v/v) concentration and 3% (v/v) concentration. Based on the result from Reducing Sugar – DNS Method analysis, the lower concentration of sodium hydroxide recovered more amount sugar then the higher concentration. The highest amount of sugar which was recoverable was 1.25 g/L. This was obtained at minute 15 of the lower concentration of sodium hydroxide. In the 3% (v/v) concentration, the highest sugar level recovered was 0.6 g/L at minute 10. The reason for the low recovery of sugar might be due to the high radiation which could cause the destruction of certain amount of cellulose and hemicellulose, if treated together with a chemical. In this case the sodium hydroxide solution could be the cause of the low sugar yield (Johnson and Elander, 2008).
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