Unit 38 Internet Server Management Assignment-Btechnd
TASK 2 (LO2: 2.1, 2.2, and M2 )
Critically analyse different Internet server technologies:
A server exists to provide services to its clients. Workloads vary and an architecture designed to efficiently support one class of applications could be very different from that needed by another class. For economic reasons, a manufacturer wishes to minimize the number of system components it needs to create, maintain and support. The manufacturer builds many different configurations from a reasonably small number of components or subsystems, allowing them the freedom to update one subsystem class without having to update all. A key capability for useful server architecture is an appropriate degree of compos ability – the ability to structure or configure servers by simply connecting various mixes of subsystems.
For this to be possible, a server must be constructed from a number of reasonably independent subsystems connected using a relatively small number of interconnects. Interconnects used to couple very high performance subsystems – such as the processor to its cache or multiple processors to each other – have many more constraints and demands than those needed to hook up slower devices, such as disks. Generally, the intimate high performance interconnects are proprietary (private to the vendor) and tuned for a specific purpose, while those further out toward the edge of the system are more likely to adhere to standards. We will discuss key interconnects and the principles behind them in the next section.
The server structure consists of the client-server model which is a distributed application structure. In it the tasks or workloads are partitioned between the providers of resource i.e. clients and servers. Clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware but they can also reside on the same hardware. Server shares its resources between the clients but clients do not share any of its resources. Client only requests for server’s content or a service function.
Basic Functionalities of Server:
In today’s time servers perform a lot of tasks but the basic functionalities which every server serves are:
- Host Websites
- Data Storage
- Running Enterprise applications
- Handling Email
- Handling FTP
Request Handling mechanisms:
Usually server handles requests of multiple clients at a time. And the steps which it follows are following:
- First of all, clients sends a request for accessing or connecting to the network, server primarily authenticate that the user is valid by using its user name and password. If user is authenticated it is allowed to access the network.
- Now, the client can access the content. And according to its privileges it can work on it.
- Client sends request to server and server responds to it by processing on its request.
- At last, whenever the client exits the server closes its session and quits.
Performance Issues of IIS and Apache:
Performance and security improvements have meant a lot to IIS. It has improved and gained its share on Apache, from about 21% in 2010 to about 32% as at Feb 2014. It also is vulnerable to the infamous Code Red worm, it has given a lot to significant gain to security. Whereas IIS is not yet perfect, for instance it has been proved poor at supporting PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) which is a property of cryptography.
Apache also utilizes external web extensions to implement some features. It has low costs as compared to IIS. And its performance is better as compared to IIS in terms of performance.
Both of them have advantages and disadvantages as mentioned above. For choosing any of the one depends on various factors. In case of IIS which can be bundled with Windows whereas Apache does not have big-name corporate support, Apache has excellent security but does not support .NET support which IIS does.
Discuss the Hardware and software required components of a Web Server.
Hardware and Software requirements of Web Server
The requirements of hardware and software of web server depends on the requests which the web sites on it get on a per day basis. Here we consider that our web server serves 1000requests/day. So according to it our configurations are:
CPU: The server’s CPU should be of the configuration 8 * 3.0 GHz or higher speed quad core processor. The CPU is very important aspect in any server as it has to be fast and efficient to serve the requests of clients as fast as possible. This mentions the efficiency the server.
The client’s CPU should be of the configuration 3.0 GHz or higher dual core processor.
Memory: Here memory specifies the temporary memory of the server or the RAM. So in our requirement it should be at least 16GB to 32 GB. AS the web server has to hold the status of clients in RAM. Their status are stored as sessions in the web server. And web server holds them only for the time in which they are logged in. And for that time the sessions are stored by web server on the server RAM. So the RAM should have enough capacity to hold the sessions of all clients logged in at a time. As well as the RAM is also used by the server to process the requests from all the clients at same time.
The client’s specification for memory should be at least 1.5 GB to 4GB for using the web server or matching the speed of web servers.
Storage Devices: Storage devices are the primary parts required in Database servers as it has to store data in a very big amount but in web servers the storage capacity is not given the weightage as the processing unit as it has to only store data related to the web services provided by the server or data containing information technology or databases used by web services.
In our case the server should at least hold 1TB to 2TB for storing the data related to web services provided by the web servers. And also there should be some amount of free space present in client’s computer for using the web services. This space can be 100GB to 200GB.
Operating System: There are special operating systems on which the web server should be implemented. In our situation we can use any of the one from:
- Red Hat Linux 5.2, x64 Edition
- Fedora 14 x64
- Windows Server 2003
- Windows Server 2008
Operating system helps to interface between the hardware and software of the computer. Here in web server specific application related to web service are efficiently managed and executed by special operating systems like mentioned above. Operating systems used by the clients do not require any special feature like operating systems of servers. So we can use operating system from any below:
- Windows XP, SP3+
- Windows Vista
- Windows 7 x86, & x64
- Mac OS X
There are some software requirements which should be fulfilled to implement a web server. As for interfacing software’s are required and also to implement any web service it is compulsory. So for implementing a web server the software which is necessary the most is web server itself. So here in our scenario we install IIS as a web server which is used as an interface to implement web services and act as a web server. In this all the processes of Web Server are done by IIS the implementation of any web service is very easy using it as you can specify anything you want to do in or with your web application in it using a simple GUI of IIS.
Another software is Java with its latest version which is used to run our compile our web application or service on a web server. Some more soft wares are there like MySQL for managing databases in our web applications.
The software components which are required by the client are just Browser to use web services or applications on its computer.
Cost of Running an Internet Server:
The total cost for running an Internet Server consists of submission of following costs:
- DNS Hosting cost
- Hardware Cost
- System Setup cost
- Software Cost
- And many more
TASK 3 (LO3: 3.1 and 3.2)
Develop a detailed, well-designed deployment Plan that will allow organizations to maintain secure configurations and aids in identifying security vulnerabilities.
Primarily, a server can be defined as the host that accommodates services to many other hosts throughout the network, this is the primary function of a server, like a file server facilitates the capabilities of file sharing across other host so that other user can perform various operations on files like deleting, modifying etc. Another good example can be a database server that facilitates database related services for the Web applications running on the Web servers and the web servers in turns provides web contents to the clients that is the web brewers that user uses to request for a web page from the web server.
We should consider security vulnerabilities and threats to make a web server secure and for this it is must to define the kind of threats that must be reduced. Knowledge to such kind of threats are necessary to take security measurement to make the server secure. there are many kind of threats that can be possible against the data and resource available on the server and that can be either bugs in the operation system or any kind of bug in the server software that can highly enhance the create a security vulnerability. Threats may include the attackers that is trying to access the resources and data available on the server or the administrator that mistakenly forgets to disable the user accounts an ex-employee that has leave the organization. Threats can be of any type and can be from local network such as a displeased or dissatisfied employee, or they can be from remote network for example a remote attacker from any other location and from other network.
Attackers can use many different ways through the application to harm to our organization or business. Each of the way denotes a high risk that may not or may be serious enough to grab our attention.
In computer world and computer system networking, basically a network service is a program of application that is running at the application level and above, it basically provides storage of data, manipulation of data and communication that is implemented using a client-server model based application. A web server provides many service that are actually presented as the components of a server. These can be easily accessed by its clients and can work on more than one computer at a time. But it is not necessity though to employ different machines for clients and servers respectively as simultaneous operations can take place on a particular system. Moreover, both the client and server have been using user interface with the association of other hardware as well.
Explain and implement the following Installation technologies: tools eg GUI (Graphical User Interface) and command line; activities eg create website, create virtual directory, install FTP services, and create FTP sites
When we want to make our website public and accessible to all users across the internet, we have to create a website under the web server to store and hold the contents to the web site. When we install IIS, it automatically creates a default web site configuration in the /Inetpub/wwwroot directory. This default directory may be utilized in order to publish the content on website; moreover, this can be also be used in order to form a directory at a desired location of files and folders. On creation of a new website in IIS, the entry can be created in Application HOst.config file. The entry represents the binding of the website and also scales the mapping of the website to a chosen directory. Moreover, through its deployment, one can opts up for the credentials in order to access the website content.
First Open Control Panel and select Program And Features
In Program and Features Window Select Turn Windows Features On or Off
Select Features To be Installed and then hit the ok button
After that a progress bar will open and IIS will be installed. Now you can open IIS Manager.
To create a virtual directory using UI
First Open IIS Manager
In the left hand portion in CONNECTIONS, click to expand the sites node. After this, opt for the site where you need to form the new virtual directory.
ACTIONS > CLICK View Virtual Directories
On virtual directories page, ACTIONS > VIRTUAL DIRECTORY
- By going to Add Virtual Directory dialog box, type in your name
- By moving to Physical path text box, enter the physical location or path of the folder of content. Browse option is enabled.
- Click Connect in order to know exactly about the credentials that are attributed with consent in order to access the path.
- Click Test Settings in order to check the settings that have been specified. This is done for the virtual directory mainly, however is optional. we specified for the virtual directory. This is optional
- Click OK.
Using Command Line
First search CMD in the Start Menu and right-click then select Run as Administrator.
Type the following command to cd \windows\system32\inetsrv then Press Enter.
If we want to add a virtual directory to the root application in a site, use the following command:
appcmd add vdir /app.name: string / /path: string /physicalPath: string
appcmd add vdir /app.name: mysites / /path:/ sample /physicalPath:c:\ sample
Creating a New FTP Site
First Open IIS Manager. On the Right side is the Connections pane, click the Sites.
Right-click the Sites and click Add FTP Site, or click Add FTP Site in Actions.
When the wizard appear enter the new FTP site name and select the physical path then click next
On the next page we can select the IP and port number and also specify the SSL setting.
On the next page of the wizard we can set the authentication and authorization setting and the permission settings, then click Finish.Order Now