Unit 37 Internet Server Management Assignment-Btechnd

Discuss the following Networking technologies and concepts:

Hubs are the devices which consists of multiple ports and are used for connecting various segments of LAN. Whenever a packet arrives at any port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of LAN can see all packets.

Switch is used to filter and forwards the data packets between LAN segments. These operates at DATA Link Layer of OSI Reference model.

It is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, these networks may be two LAN’s or WAN’s. Routers are connected at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.

Network Management Concerns:
There are major concerns of in network management and that are:

Flexibility vs. Security: The network which is to be developed should be flexible enough to serve the users properly and productively. And hence by increasing the flexibility security levels decreases. So to maintain both at a time a proper development plan is to be build up taking care of both.

Cost vs. Capability: The network should be cost effective to keep in mind the budget of implementing it and also it should be also capable of serving the needs of it users efficiently.

User Group Management:
In this section we consider about managing the rights or permissions granted to the users or groups. In this group is a virtually considered as a particular category of users. They are granted or assigned permissions on which they are bound on that network.

Resource Management:
Resources of networking should be managed in an efficient and best optimized way as it costs really high and provides user a way to communicate to the other in that network. So this is compulsory for the network resources to be used in a much optimized way.

Security of networks is the first thing which comes into mind when implementing a network. As the network can be hacked by the unauthorized person or group of persons who can harm the users of network by any way. So network security should be kept in mind while implementing any network.

Network Attacks:
Without security measures and controls the network can be attacked by any one. These attacks can harm your data by modifying, deleting, or accessing unauthorized content in it.

It is a network security system which controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an applied rule set. It establishes a barrier between a trusted secure internal network and another network that is assumed not to be safe.

Unit 37 Internet Server Management Assignment-Btechnd

Servers and their performance:
Servers are expensive, high performance machines. So getting most out of these machines and keeping them running smoothly is critical to maximizing their value. However, maintaining high levels of server performance and keeping those up with growing demands of computing help is the basic requirement. Server performance is a measure calculated by following figures like resource management, optimization performance.

User Access Issue:
To manage user accesses NAC is an approach used in which users are assigned accesses to data according to the network administrator. And also authentication is required in it to access its data.

Critically evaluate the importance of OSI 7 Layer Reference Model

Importance of OSI layer model:

  • Reduces complexity.
  • Standardizes Interfaces.
  • Facilitates modular engineering.
  • Interoperability between Vendors.
  • Ensures interoperability between Vendors.
  • Accelerates evolution.
  • Simplifies teaching and learning.

Importance of Layers:

  • Layer 7: Provides services directly to user applications. Because of the potentially wide variety of applications, this layer must provide a wealth of services. Among these services are establishing privacy mechanisms, authenticating the intended communication partners, and determining if adequate resources are present.
  • Layer 6:Performs data transformations to provide a common interface for user applications, including services such as reformatting, data compression, and encryption.
  • Layer 5: Establishes, manages and end user connections and manages the interaction between end systems. Services include such things as establishing communications as full or half duplex and grouping data.
  • Layer 4: Insulates the three upper layers, 5 through 7, from having to deal with the complexities of layers 1 through 3 by providing the functions necessary to guarantee a reliable network link. Among other functions, this layer provides error recovery and flow control between the two end points of the network connection.
  • Layer 3: Establishes, maintains, and terminates network connections. Among other functions, standards define how data routing and relaying are handled.
  • Layer 2: Ensures the reliability of the physical link established at Layer 1. Standards define how data frames are recognized and provide necessary flow control and error handling at the frame level.
  • Layer 1: Controls transmission of the raw bit stream over the transmission medium. Standards for this layer define such parameters as the amount of signal voltage swing, the duration of voltages (bits), and so on.

Network Layer

Explain how the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model relates to the TCP/IP Protocol Model.

OSI models relate to TCP/IP model:

 OSI Models relate to TCP or IP Model

1 TCP/IP Model Layers                                                           2. OSI Model Layers


Here RJ stands for registered jack. And RJ 45 is a connector which is standardized connector used with eight conductors. This connector is used for modem and data interfaces. It looks similar to RJ-11 used to connect telephones.

RJ-45 Connector

3 RJ-45 Connector


It stands for Registered Connector 11. It is a telephone interface that uses a cable of twisted wire pairs and a modular jack with two, four or six contacts. It is the common connector for pluging a telephone into the wall and the handset into the telephone.

RJ-11 Connector

4 RJ-11 Connector


IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is world’s largest association of technical professionals. Its main objectives are the educational and technical advancements of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering, and allied disciplines.
IEEE generalizes its society into different families which are dealing on different topics. Like for example IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with LAN (Local Area Network) and MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks). And also there are sub families of IEEE 802 divided like IEEE 802.1 which deals in bridging and network management. IEEE 802.2 deals in LLC. IEEE 802.3 deals in Ethernet. IEEE 802.4 deals in Token Bus. And many more.see more(Unit 36 Internet Server Management Assignment-Btechnd)

Similarities between the two:               

  • Both have comparable transporrt and network layers.
  • Both have application layers though they include very different services.
  • Packet switched technology is assumed.

Differences between the two:

  • TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its application layer.
  • TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into one layer.
  • TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the Internet developed, so the TCP/IP model gains credibility just because of its protocols, even though everyone uses the OSI model to guide their thinking.
  • Packet-switched technology is assumed.Order Now

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