Unit 32 Food Safety Management-Btechnd
Temperature Control System:
Temperature control plays an important role in keeping the food safe. Below is the demonstration of the temperature control for preserving food items:
|Refrigeration||8°C or below is ideal temperature to prevent the growth of bacteria in perishable food items. However it is recommended to keep the temperature of refrigerator at 5°C or below.|
|Freezing||Bacteria multiplication is prevented at -18 °C or below in the food items that are meant to be preserves using freezer storage.|
|Cooking||In order to kill bacteria of all types it is mandatory to cook the food at the temperature of 75 °C or above. However a temperature below 75 °C is also effective provided the food is cooed for longer duration.|
|Hot Holding||Temperature of 65°C or above ca control the bacteria multiplication in hot food.|
|Cooling||Food need to be cooled quickly and placed in refrigeration to limit germination of spores and bacteria growth.|
Food that is already heated must be reheated at 82°C to ensure safe reheat at required temperature. Knowledge of Time/Temperature is important to ensure proper reheat and quality of food.
b)Evaluation of the importance of personal hygiene, cleaning, disinfection and pest control.
Various primary method of control over food contamination has been discussed above. In addition to those there are some secondary but important factors as well. These factors are personal hygiene, cleaning of food item, disinfection and pest control which are very helpful in controlling food contamination. Below are the detail description of these factors:
- Personal hygiene: Apart from bacteria and viruses, bugs and germs are another root cause for food contamination. Hence personal hygiene is very crucial factor control the spread of these germs. Especially in kitchen, handling food without proper hand wash increases the probability of food poisoning. It is important to uses suitable cleansing agent and a separate dry towel for hand wash. Germs spread 1000 times faster with damp hands that with dry hands (Walker, 2003). There are few other measure that need to be taken while handing food are always use apron to avoid cooking in soiled clothes, do not cook if you are sick, do not com your hair while cooking as 1mm hair follicle can dock 50,000 germs.
- Cleaning: Cleaning is another important factor to control food contamination. Cleaning does not simply means washing hands but in this case it means to keep the cooking or food preparatory area clean and tidy. This process includes disposal of dirt, dust and rubbish from the work bench. Also to make sure that the floors, window sills, walls and all the remaining area of the food preparation area must be properly clean. Not only food preparation area but raw food production premise should also maintain a level of cleanliness. This process reduces the chances of food getting contaminated at the initial stage.
- Disinfection: In the food industry disinfectants have a role to reduce microorganism to a safe level. Since the food produced are basically for the consumption of human and animals so it is important that disinfectant used in sanitation program must be suitable for food factory applications. It should be non-toxic, safe for cleaning, effective and odourless (Lelieveld, 2014). The role that disinfection plays in food industry is to reduce the pathogens microorganism. Also it interrupts the transmission of pathogen microorganism which is vital for disease prevention.
- Pest control: There are many kinds of pests that can cause the food contamination such as cockroaches, flies, ants, lizards, rats and floor moths. There are many ways to control pest invading the premises by practicing good hygiene and pest proofing the premises (Lelieveld, 2014). There are other physical and chemical controls methods. Physical methods are better option which includes electric flies’ killer, rodent traps, curtains and nets etc. This avoids the food product contamination. Chemical control methods are more effective but can be risky to the person using it and it is also risky to food items. Chemical control like insecticides and fumigates is very effective provided it should be used under monitored and controlled conditions.
c) Justification on the need for hygiene design of premises and hygiene training.
An appropriate and suitable hygiene design of the food premise is very crucial in food industry, especially when it comes to control food contamination. The food premises need to have adequate space for the production of food items and should be equipped with proper utensils and appliance. Sufficient space allow the smooth movement of food item and the people in the premise. This is very essential aspect of hygiene design as ample space allows efficient work and reduces the probability of contamination in the food items. For example, if the place is congested, it hampers the movement and could lead in addition of unwanted substance in the food items such as hairs, detached knife tips, etc. Also presence of proper facility and equipment helps to proper preparation of the food item.
Hygiene design includes easy cleaning, sanitizing and maintenance of the premises (Carpentier, 2011). This practice is very helpful in minimizing the food contamination from germs. Facts states that germs are also a vital source of food poisoning. Proper sanitizing eliminate the presence of germs and supress their growth on floor, work bench, window tills, etc. It is very important to keep out dust, dirt, smoke and other contaminates. These factors are also equal contributor to food contamination. In order to deal with these proper exhaust is necessary to eliminate smoke and also walls and ceiling should be designed so that it could be easily cleaned when necessary.
Apart from this,the hygiene design of the premise includes the techniques to prevent it from harbourage of pests. Pests carry germs with them. Their presence can lead to food contamination and often food poisoning. Proper measure should be taken to keep the premise free from pests.
Hygiene training as quality assurance mechanism:
Hygiene training ensure that the food industry comply with the standards of food hygiene that are set for the industry. The hygiene training reduces the chances of food contamination which leads to food poisoning. And hence protecting the health of consumers of the food. Food hygiene training includes implementation of food safety management system, making sure that the members of staff undergo food hygiene course and maintain adequate hygiene standards.
The necessity of development of the sense and culture of food safety in people is of utmost importance. Hygiene training is the best practice to train the employees and the managers of the food producing industry to develop this food safety culture (Seaman, 2006). Failure to this process increases the risk of food contamination which could result in public’s poor health. The result of poor public health is not an easy matter to get over with. It could lead to serious concerns for the food industry. The potential issues that could occur in this case are customer dissatisfaction, loss of reputation and business and potentially huge legal cost.
d) Documentation on food hazard risk management, food safety control system and food safety guide meeting legal requirement.
In context with food safety identifying the hazards and estimating risk are the major factor to ensure food safety. Food hazards are the external agent or substance that are present in food items. These food hazards have adverse effect on the health of the consumer. These hazards are classified as chemical, physical and biological agent (Lammerding, 2000). Salmonella is a good example of a biological agent which has adverse effect on the consumer. Consumption of food with salmonella leads to food poisoning. Also chemical hazards such as mercury is a natural contaminant. The presence of mercury in some food item pose a potential risk to the consumer.
The risk from the food hazard is dependent on the exposure to the specific hazard and the severity of the health care issue posed by certain food hazard. For example, aflatoxin is a food hazard. The risk from this food hazard is that this hazard has the ability to cause liver cancer if the consumer is exposed to this at a high level and over a long period of time.
Food Safety Control System:
Food safety control system has the objective to protect health of public by reducing the risks from food borne diseases (Luning, 2008). Also it is meant to protect consumer from adulterated and mislabelled food, develop and maintain consumer confidence in food industry. The building blocks of food safety control system are:
- Food law and regulations: This process is meant to design and enforce the food law and regulation. Food law contains the direction and prescription of the tools that could enforce the removal of unsafe food and punishing the responsible parties.
- Food control management: Food control management accounts for development and implementation of an integrated national food control strategy. It sets the standards and regulations, develop emergency response procedures, carry out risk analysis, etc.
- Inspection service: Inspection service is meant to investigate the storage, processing, transportation and sale of the food item. There is a food inspector who is the direct point of contact with the traders, food industry and even public.
- Laboratory services: Laboratories are the important component of food safety control system. The objective of setting up laboratory is to analyse the physical, chemical and microbiological agents that has adverse effect on the consumers.
- Education and training: Another most important component of food safety control system. It is an increasingly important task to deliver information and provide education on food safety through various training programme to spread awareness on food safety measure the need to be adopted for healthy living.
Food safety guide for legislation compliance:
- A food business should regularly examine all its food product for contamination and should examine all its food handling operations to identify the potential hazard in the food item.
- In case the food hazard is identified in the food item or in a food lot, a food safety programme should be implemented in order to prevent the food items and control the hazard.
- Review the food safety program periodically to ensure its adequacy.
It is clear from the report that hygiene plays a very important role in preventing food contamination. Maintaining a proper level of hygiene is very useful in supressing the physical, chemical and biological agents that cause food hazard and could lead to adverse health and social care issues. It is clear from the report that effective food preventive measure and temperature control system is helpful in preserving and preventing the food from the hazardous agents. The report has described the importance of various factors such as personal hygiene, cleaning the food premises, disinfectant and pest control method to prevent food contamination and to provide a safe food production condition. In addition to this, the structure and construction of the hygienic food premise is very useful minimizing the risk from the hazardous agents. The premise is meant to be clean and should contain all the disinfectant and pest control measure. Further the report has illustrated the importance of the hygiene training as a quality assurance mechanism.
Carpentier, B., & Cerf, O., 2011. Review—Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food industry equipment and premises. International journal of food microbiology, 145(1), 1-8.
D’Mello, J. F. (Ed.), 2003. Food safety: contaminants and toxins. CABI.
Lammerding, A. M., & Fazil, A., 2000. Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment. International journal of food microbiology, 58(3), 147-157.
Lelieveld, H., Holah, J., & Napper, D. (Eds.), 2014. Hygiene in food processing: principles and practice. Elsevier.
Lundie, S., & Peters, G. M., 2005. Life cycle assessment of food waste management options. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(3), 275-286.
Luning, P. A., Bango, L., Kussaga, J., Rovira, J., & Marcelis, W. J., 2008. Comprehensive analysis and differentiated assessment of food safety control systems: a diagnostic instrument. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 19(10), 522-534.