Unit 3 Organisation And Behaviour Assignment Help
Explain the nature of groups and group Behaviour within organizations
A group is any number of people who interact with one another; who are psychologically aware of one another; and who perceive themselves to be a group. Clearly, this brings into play the ideas that interaction must take place and the importance of awareness So the Oasis concert spectators in the list above are not a group because they do not fulfill all of Schein’s criteria. When we use the words ‘groups’ or ‘group relationship’ we are, more than likely, referring to the existence of a psychological relationship. (Brooks I 2002)
A team is a collection of people who work with each other to achieve a specific,common goal or objective. Martin (2005) states that a team ‘implies a small, cohesive group that works effectively as a single unit through being focused on a common task.’ Katzenbach and Smith (1999:15) in their landmark research present a more comprehensive definition: ‘a team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.’ Further, they describe a number of groups and teams which distinguish between different levels of collective performance ranging from working groups and pseudogroups to potential teams, real teams, and high-performance teams. (Brooks I 2002)
There are 5 stages of group development and relationship.
Stage 1 Forming: This is the first step of formation of a group where individual who have the knowledge about the target goals comes together for a common goal. There is high dependence on leader for guidance and direction during this stage. The leader must be able to answer questions relating to the purpose of the establishment of the group. initially, this stage is involved with the bringing together of a number of people who may be somewhat anxious, wary and unsure. Clearly in this scenario, there are few, if any, ground rules. Ambiguity and confusion reign over the group. Everybody is busy finding out who the other people are. Members are keen to establish their personal identities in the group and make a personal impression, and it is for this reason that considerable anxiety, and even fear, may be generated. Adding to this anxiety is the potential lack of focus and clarity around the purpose of the group and uncertainty about the task ahead. (Brooks I 2002)
Stage 2 Storming: Members of the group will get to know each other at this stage, their view will put forward to the house, decisions do not come easily within the group. This stage is important because if successful there will be discussions on reforming arrangement for the working and the operation of the group.This is a period of disagreement, frustration and potential confrontation but every group must go through it. Out of conflict can come good, and the group needs to cling to this sentiment at this time. The potential conflict is there because members now feel more confident to challenge each other, and to express their views more openly and forcefully. There will be some jockeying for positions of power and frustration at an apparent lack of progress. The storming stage is important as it raises the energy (and activity) level of the group and can lead on to significant changes in creativity and innovation. (Brooks I 2002)
Stage 3 Norming: Here, conflict and hostility start to be controlled, members of the group will have established rules and guidance to follow, what is accepted and what is not accepted. The members need to be co-operative in order to achieve their goals.Here, there is a clear sense of group identity, and guidelines, standards, procedures, roles and structure become formally established. Emotions are now expressed constructively and listened to! In organisational settings, it is at this stage that management should intervene if they are looking to influence the group this stage that that all-important group rules the rules are developed and established. If the Hawthorne Studies of the 1920s and 1930s (see Chapter 5) showed us anything, it was that group norms can certainly influence, it is much more difficult to alter, or influence, their members’ attitudes and behaviour.(Brooks I 2002)
Stage 4 Performing: Here, the group has progressed through the 3 stages of business development. They will have understood each other and they can then concentrate on the attainment of the desired goals. having progressed through the earlier stages, a team will have created some structure and cohesiveness to work effectively. With these ‘mechanics’ in place, the team can now concentrate on the achievement of its objectives. It is at this stage that task performance is at its most effective. The group should now be close and supportive, open and trusting, resourceful and effective. As most teams have a limited life. (Brooks I 2002)
Stage 5 Adjourning:
The group may disband, either because the task and objectives have been achieved to a satisfactory level or because the members have left. However, before disbanding, it is important for the group to reflect on their time together – what went well, what didn’t go so well and what might they do differently next time and how? Such reflection may be a great source of learning for both the individuals concerned and the organisation. . (Brooks I 2002)
Types of groups are a formal and informal group.
Formal groups are, therefore, consciously created to accomplish the organisation’s collective mission and to achieve specific organisational and departmental objectives. They are primarily concerned with the coordination of work activities and are task orientated. They are embedded and entrapped in the fabric, hierarchy and structure of the organisation: people are brought together on the basis of defined roles. The nature of the tasks undertaken is a predominant feature of the formal group. Goals are identified and developed by management, and rules, relationships and norms of behaviour are established. They have been consciously created and organised, recruited for and put together by somebody for a reason.
Formal groups are an important element of the organisational structure Because the individuals in formal groups share some commonality of objectives, goals and (occasionally) rewards, they are more akin to teams – formal teams. They assist people to accomplish goals much less haphazardly than they would in informal groups, coordinate the activities of the functions of the organisation, establish logical authority relationships among people and between positions, apply the concepts of specialisation and division of labour, They are to distribute work, having brought together a particular set of skills, talents and responsibilities, manage and control work, facilitate the problem-solving process by bringing together all of the available capabilities, pass on decisions or information to those who need to know, gather ideas, information and suggestions, test and ratify decisions,coordinate and facilitate necessary liaison, increase commitment and involvement resolve arguments and disputes between different functions and levels. (Brooks I 2002)
Running alongside and within, cutting across and around these formal groups and teams there exist a number of informal groups, such as the office quiz or bowls team, the theatre-going group or the t The list is endless. We can define an informal group as a collection of individuals who become a group when members develop certain interdependencies, influence one another’s behaviour and contribute to mutual need satisfaction. Informal groups are based more on personal relationships and agreement of group members than on any defined role relationships. They simply emerge in the organisation, from the informal interaction of the members of the organisation. They may be born out of shared interests, friendship or some other social aspect. What informal groups satisfy, in a way that the formal group may not, is a sense of belonging, the idea that we can be wanted, needed and included for what we are and not because the organisation has put us to work with these other people. These informal groups can also satisfy a range of other needs. They can, reduce feelings of insecurity and anxiety and provide each other with social support, fulfil affiliation needs for friendship, love, and support, help to define our sense of identity and maintain our self-esteem , provide guidelines on generally acceptable behaviour, they help shape group and organisational norms, cater for those often ill-defined tasks which can only be performed through the combined efforts of a number of individuals working together. As can be seen from the list at the beginning of this section, membership of a group can cut across the boundaries created by the formal structure. Individuals from different parts and levels of the organisation may all belong to the same informal group. (Brooks I 2002)
Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations.
Team is a collection (group) of people who work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goals or objective.
Team is also explained as a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose,performance goals and approach, for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Teamwork joint action,all members in the team work together to achieve a common goal regardless preferences or personality. (Brooks I 2002)
Leadership : Effective leadership promotes teamwork. A leader listens to the need and gives the listening ear to the teammate. If there is good leadership, the teams will benefit from his knowledge and he will be sources of inspiration to the team members.
A good leadership will be able to take charge, motivate and discipline any member that deviate from the norms of the group. He will also make sure all team members are performing to what was expected from them. A good leadership will be able to tolerate the other team member and should be able to maintain a strict discipline.
Teams tend to be a mirror image of their leaders. The form of management and style of leadership adopted will influence the relationship between the group and the organisation and are major determinants of group cohesiveness. In general terms, cohesiveness will be affected by such things as the manner in which the manager gives guidance and encouragement to the group, offers help and support, provides opportunities for participation, attempts
to resolve conflicts and gives attention to both employee relations and task problems. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Group Norms: According to Riches, one way to improve team performance is to establish agreed norms or rules for how the team is to operate and rigorously stick to them. Norms could address the obligations of individual members to the team, how it will assess its performance, how it will work together, what motivation systems will be used, how it will relate to customers,
and the mechanisms to facilitate an honest exchange about the team norms and behaviour. A 2003 study by the Economic & Social Research project Council draws attention to the importance
of social norms among employees and questions whether employees are guided not only by monetary incentives but also by peer pressure towards social efficiency for the workers (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Communication Mechanism:Development of the teamwork will come to place with the possibility of a communication mechanism
Communication is essential in passing information and ideas to one another. Communication makes it possible to contribute to the group, to promote so as to achieve the desired goals. Also with communication, disagreement from one member with another will be easily resolved to hinder the achieving the goal.
Groups want all the information that affects their welfare, either negatively or positively. If groups are not apprised of policies and motives behind actions, they will seek to tap into formal communication channels and spread information among group members. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Role Identity: This is the extent to which members are capable of assuming different roles through the team structure, thus diversifying efforts and development subject matter experts. Those members that assume a role will be able to share skills to the teammate in achieving the desired goals.Many managers must observe the extent to which a team can recognise the individual potential in each member and identify the role best suited for that member. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Conformity and deviance: This is the extent to which member are similar to one another When checking the team mate it is very difficult to found a member that has the same personal characteristic, same education background, and the same skills. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
The Factors that inhibit the development is:
- Lack of trust
- Fear of conflict
- Lack of commitment
Lack of Trust: If the team members do not trust each other, this will definitely inhibit development. Trust is very important in achieving the desired goals (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Fear of conflict: Conflict could arise where 2 or more people share ideas and opinion. Because of the fear of conflict between the teammate, desired goals may not be achieved. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Lack of commitment: Some of the teammates may not take the association very seriously when full commitment is not implemented in the association the possibility of achieving the set goals will be jeopardised. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Avoidance: Some of the teammates may be avoiding each other when this happened when this happened knowledge and skills will not be impacted on each other and this will lead to the desired goal not been achieved. (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation
Technology has a considerable impact on the pattern of group operations and behaviour this can improve and at the same time hinder the team functioning .By using e -mail which is a technology will make it easier for each member to communicate with each other without necessarily meeting at a point before disseminating any information.The email could as well be misused which is one of the hindrances that could have a negative impact on team functioning.Mobile phones were observed to have a greater impact on team technology because members could communicate, pass important information across to each other when not at the workplace.Video conferencing is another technology that has a greater impact on team functioning by assisting each member to communicate and discuss a better issue seeing one another without necessarily coming together before doing a given task.Another impact of technology is that the organization limit the number of people employed due to the present of technology . One of the most striking issues arising from the work of Trist et al. (1963) was that the technological changes being implemented in a coal mine under observation had brought about changes in the traditional social groupings of the miners.it was observed that technological change created a lack of cooperation between different shifts and a disruption to the integration of small groups The type, level, amount and use of technology available to an organisation can often determine how particular tasks or work packages are carried out. In some circumstances, the technology can strongly influence and change the very essence of a job and the way it is performed. For example, the way the work is organized around the technology may limit the opportunities for social interaction and the extent to which it is possible to identify oneself as a member of a cohesive work group. Consequently, this can have adverse, or positive, effects on attitudes to work and the level of job satisfaction. During the past few decades, manufacturing organizations have been striving to eliminate some of the most alienating aspects of mass production by increasing the range and type of tasks and responsibilities allocated to small groups. These attempts include the greater use of group technology approaches, autonomous work groups and self-directed teams, as discussed above. The downsizing of large-scale centralised organisations into smaller working units can help to develop an environment in which workers may relate more easily to each other. (Brooks I 2002)
Brooks I – Organisational Behaviour:Individuals,Groups and Organisation(FT Prentice Hall,2002)
Mullins L J – Management and Organisational Behaviour (FT Prentice Hall, 2004)
Boddy D – Management :An introduction ,Third Edition(FT Prentice Hall, 2009).
Brooks I -Organisational Behaviour:Individuals,Groups and Organisation Third Edition (FT Prentice Hall,2006)
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