Pearson BTEC Level 4/5 HNC/D Diploma Health and Social Care – Unit 24 : Understanding Learning Process
HND Assigments UK providing you the complete solution of ECB College understanding learning process assignment that is part of HND Health and social care course. ECB stands for East End Computing and Business College.
Experience, Teaching, Studying or Practicing helps in acquiring knowledge or skills and eventually leads to a change in the behaviour of an individual. This is called Learning. There are various theories which support learning. The assignment covers various aspects of learning theories in a health and social care.
Dr. Benjamin Bloom along with his team devised Bloom’s taxonomy of learning to take the process of learning from a basic level of just remembering things to an advanced form of learning like evaluating and analysing. Three main domains of learning identified were:
Cognitive Domain: This is shown by the intellectual capabilities of an individual, Forehand (2010). The main skills included in this domain are:
- Knowledge: Recalling or identifying given information, like define; describe definitions, rules, regulations.
- Comprehension: Understanding the data and interpreting it accordingly like finding a solution to a given problem, giving examples.
- Application: Applying the given information to a real life scenario including solving a problem or demonstrating an activity.
- Analysis: Separating information into parts for a better understanding, like measuring the requirements, making assessments.
- Synthesis: Building conclusion from information from different sources. It has words like develop, create, build, plan and concerned activities.
- Evaluation: Judging the value of information. It includes words like justify, assess, report, argue, appraise and activities like SWOT analysis, reviewing options etc.
Affective Domain: This gives account of the emotions like interest, values, attitude and awareness of the learner towards the experience of learning. The five categories are:
- Receiving Phenomenon: This signifies the willingness to listen and a basic awareness to learning like listening to the teacher and making notes.
- Responding to Phenomena: This includes active participation in the learning process like reacting, responding, seeking clarifications.
- Valuing: It considers the value a person associates with something. This would involve refutes, criticisms and confrontation.
- Organization behavior : This includes prioritizing the values and stating the personal reasons.
- Internalizing values: Developing a behaviour which is under the control of the value systems. This would revolve around acting, influencing, displaying.
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Psychomotor Domain: It includes the use of physical movement, coordination and basic motor skills. The main categories are:
- Perception: Ability to use sensory powers like feel, touch to guide physical activity.
- Set: Physical, emotional or mental preparation before generating an action.
- Guided Response: Process of learning a complicated skill which includes imitation.
- Mechanism: To perform, display or complete a complex motor skill.
- Complex Overt Response: To display a complicated skill with special expertise
- Adaptation: Ability to adjust, integrate the skill learnt to a new situation
- Origination: The ability to create new movement patterns.
According to the changes made in the learning style in the recent times, Bloom’s model was modified as:
With the recent advances made in the field of medicines and science and technology, the life span in increasing and so is the urge for people to have a better quality of life. As a result the health care industry is booming and the need for health and social care practice is on a rise. Health and Social Care basically emphasizes on leading a healthy life by understanding the needs of the patients and reacting accordingly. The Bloom’s model was an excellent model for coaching, teaching, training and learning. It provides a basic list of activities to be checked out for before starting with any learning process. The Bloom’s model can be applied to a Health and Social Care Centre as well. The same has been explained below:
- As per Bloom’s taxonomy model the first skill is knowledge. This basically includes recalling the data. It is important for a health care giver to be thorough with his basic knowledge like safety rules and regulations, name and other relevant details of the resident.
- The next skill is comprehension. It is very important for a care giver to not only memorize but be capable of interpreting the problems of the residents at the health and social care centres. They should be able to express the problems of the residents in their own words.
- The third skill according to Bloom’s taxonomy is Application. According to this the care giver should be able to apply a given concept in a situation. For e.g. at a health and social care centre, the care giver is asked to use the B.P. apparatus to monitor the blood pressure of a geriatric resident just by referring to its instruction manual in the absence of a nurse.
- The next important skill as defined in the Bloom’s model is Analysis. This includes the ability to differentiate between the real facts and the interpretations. This can be applied in health and social care practice also. For e.g. a care giver can rectify an equipment being used in the centre just by using common logic.
- A care giver at a health and social care centre also needs to have the skill of synthesis. For e.g. care giver observes the nurse taking checking blood glucose level of a resident regularly and perform the same action himself in her absence.
- Evaluation is the last skill as defined in Bloom’s model. It can be of help for a care giver in health and social care practice as it may help him to manage and devise the budget as he is capable of making judgments about things needed.
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Kolbe’s learning cycle is an effective model which explains the process of learning as
Concrete Experience: This step involves indulging one’s own self in doing the work. This may be individual effort or as a team. The experience of doing the work does not include any analysis but just carry on with the work with utmost attention.
Reflective Observation: This involves revisiting the work that has been done. It is important to understand the differences, applying definitions and ability to communicate them evidently.
Abstract Conceptualization: It includes drawing conclusions from the processes that have taken place making an effort to make a correlation between them.
Active Experimentation: This step involves planning the actions as per the new understanding to handle the work in a more efficient manner, Vince (1998).
In the given case of where Elma is placed at a care home with Mr Smith and is trying to have an interaction with him. The Kolb’s learning cycle starts with the very first stage for Elma where she just concentrates on having a conversation with Mr Smith than making any conclusions or any assumptions that Mr Smith is deaf and old.
Kolb’s learning cycle can be applied to the given case which includes the entire process of Elma trying to interact with Mr Smith. This can be explained as follows:
Elma just involves herself in talking to Mr Smith without making any assumptions or doing any analysis. This is the first step of Kolb’s cycle called Concrete Experience.
Elma then realizes that Mr Smith is not reciprocating to the questions she has been asking and she decides to discontinue the conversation. This is Reflective Observation.
Elma then contacts the other staff members about the experience of her conversation with Mr Smith. The staff members tell her that Mr Smith cannot listen anything but can definitely lip read. It is then that Elma realizes that she was not facing Mr Smith while interacting with him and he could not see her face while the conversation was in process. Elma connects all the events that have taken place. This is called Abstract Conceptualization.
As per her understanding of the situation, Elma then goes back to Mr Smith and interacts with him with her face being visible to Mr Smith so that he can lip read what she is saying and they have a very talkative session. This is called Active Experimentation
Elma’s learning from the entire experience was that while handling old aged and deaf people at the home care centre, it is important that there is a face to face interaction with them. There can be instances where the resident cannot listen as he is deaf but can understand the essence of discussion by lip reading the main words of the discussion and then react accordingly. Hence it is important that the resident is able to look at the care giver while they are having an interaction. It is important for any care giver to analyse the situation and think of the probable courses of action before initiating any action that might be in the welfare of the resident.
There are other similar theories like Kolb’s learning cycle that may help in the process of learning and development of skills in a health and social care centre. Three such theories have been discussed below:
Accelerated Learning Cycle: This was given by Alistair Smith based on classroom lesson plan, Zhang (1994). According to this, learning has four stages:
Connection Phase: It relates to the process, the context and the learners.
Activation Phase: This includes analysis to understand if the learner is adding any problem, use a multi-pronged approach and addition of any language.
Demonstration Phase: In this phase educative feedbacks and many ways of demonstrating understanding have been used.
Consolidation Phase: This includes studying the structure, content and process of learning and then reviewing and previewing.
Ripples: This is another learning cycle process given by Phil Race who believed that learning occurred by series of ripples in such a way that each factor interacts with another in such a way that all the factors create harmony. According to this theory, the process of learning had four basic elements:
The first element wanting/needing is the motivation to initiate the learning. The next element is doing which comes by practice and trial and error. This is followed by feedback, which includes observing the reactions of others and analysing the results. Lastly, Digesting means making sense of the whole thing and getting an ownership. These elements are not distinctive in character but like intersecting ripples.
Loop Learning: It can be single loop learning or double loop learning. Single loop is based on a feedback mechanism and is meant for simple learning. Double loop is based on many variables and assumptions of the work at hand and are used for complicated situations.
The core principle of all the theories as mentioned above is initiating the action, analysis the action that has been taken and adopting a revised approach for performing the action as per the observations. The theories of learning can also be adapted in the setup of health and social care. They can help a care giver in understanding the problems of the residents and developing manager skills to take proper care of the residents. The same have been discussed
Social learning theory may be applied in a health and social care centre as this theory helps in understanding of the personal characteristics and environment. Both these parameters are of great relevance in a health and social care practice and understanding the professional characteristics and personal development of the individual and the environment is an important skill that needs to be developed (Rosenstock, Strecher & Becker, 1988).
The care givers need to handle the residents with a lot of perseverance and patience. The approach that might work for one might not work for the other resident. Hence each resident has to be carefully analysed as per the theory of learning and an approach developed accordingly, Booth & Booth (2003).
An important part of the care centre is nursing and regular medical check-ups. As mentioned in the theories of learning, the care givers can inculcate some basic skills like checking the blood sugar levels or monitoring the blood pressure from observing the regular medical faculties at the health and social care centre.
Another theory of learning which may be useful when looking from the perspective of a health and social care is Behaviourist Learning Theory, which helps to develop the skill of observing the behaviour of the resident before initiating any action.
Learning styles is based on the fact that different methods of study have different effectiveness in different people, Kolb (1981). There are different concepts of learning styles. They can be explained as
Visual Learners: They learn by observation and can easily recall what they see. They prefer reading and writing notes. Learning is best through diagrams, flashcards, maps etc.
Auditory Learners: They prefer listening and can easily recall what they have heard. They prefer dialogues, discussion, oral reading, listening to tapes.
Kinaesthetic Learners: They learn by physical activity and gain advantage of demonstration. Preferred methods are games, role plays, dramas etc.
Tactile Learners: They learn by manipulation and touching and get benefits from making models, designs etc.
Active: Such learners are impulsive and believe in taking risks. They like competitions in teams and role plays and acting.
Reflective: These types of learners think about the concepts before initiating any action and learn more by thinking.
Analytical Understanding: It includes the use of puzzles, logic games for learning. Such type of learner prefers information in small groups.
Hence in order to identify the type of learning style of an individual, it is important to know what type of information and in what form is preferred by the individual.
However, there are various factors which may influence effective learning development. They have been discussed below:
- Lack of clarity to see, hear, understand or use of small fonts, jargons etc.
- The learner is not aware of what is to be done and there are no clear instructions.
- Improper attention while learning
- Lack of motivation from the teacher
- Time also often acts a constraint and a hindrance to learning
- Lack of proper attention and praise, rewards from the tutors.
- The impact and pressure of the fellow mates.
- Interest in the subject matter.
- Skills of learning
- Previous experience of learning
- Skills and interest of the tutor.
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VARK method is used to assess the learning style of an individual. It helps to furnish unique information about an individual (Leite, Svinicki & Shi, 2010).
The VARK assessment as observed was
According to the evaluation of VARK, the learning preference is Multimodal AK i.e. the preferred modes of learning are Aural i.e. Hearing and Kinaesthetic that means with the help of doing. As per the results of VARK model of learning, the best methods of learning would be by hearing like attending classes, discussions with others, listening to stories and audio tapes. Learning can also happen by initiating the action first than just pondering over the analysis first or thinking of the repercussions of the event. Hence there can be various influences that may affect the learning according to the preferred modes of learning like distraction in hearing, unable to gain access to hearing the sources of learning and also inability to do the action on the own i.e. there is no physical contact or touch with the job at hand.
Based on the assistant manager’s need to deliver training to the staff one can use a curriculum based model for delivering and assessing learning outcomes. The curriculum based model should be based on continuous improvement, (Barrett, Greenwood& Ross, (2003). The curriculum based model for continuous improvement shall be based on the following steps.
- Plan – The Assistant manager needs to plan the scope of the training and the key stakeholders for the training. He should also define the timelines for the training.
- Vision – The assistant manager who will deliver the training should be clear about his vision and what he wants to achieve with the same. He should ensure the staff is aligned to his vision during the training.
- Assess – once the training is being delivered the assistant manage should ensure periodic evaluation of the staff so as to assess their grasping and reactions to the training methods. The assistant manager can use curriculum mapping, focused group discussions as well as SWOT to assess the learning outcomes.
- Improve and Align – The assistant manage if finds out that the training is not proceeding in the right direction and the desired objectives are not being met with respect to some staff members the method of delivery can be changed to suit the training requirements and the stakeholders of the training and align them to the new style of training.
- Monitor and Adapt – After the successful delivery of the training the manager should assess the performances of the trainees and evaluate them. Once done he should ensure the learning are implemented in the social care home and people can adapt to the changes as quickly as possible.
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A four step approach can be followed to identify the training needs of the staff. They are: –
- Assessment and Measurement Methods – In this step the manager needs to identify that what is the current training that is going on in the facility. He should be able to access knowledge, skills and tools should to be added.
- Existing Training – Before assessing the training needs for the entire facility the manager can start by assessing the existing training that is being delivered in social care home and get a head start based on the needs being satisfied by this training.
- Career Development – In this approach the manager needs to identify the growth pattern for the staff and the field they want to grow in. The trainings should then be designed with respect to the long term career development path of the individual. Different sets of trainings needs are to be addressed for managers, supervisors and attendants etc.
- Recurring and Required Training – Certain training needs are of the type that should be regularly given and it is for all the job levels in the social care home. These are related to maintaining the basic hygiene at the work place. The manage needs to assess this and create a training plan for the same.
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To train the staff at the social care home the assistant manager can use different techniques. He can use either a presentation based method or Hand-on method or group building methods. For the social care setting, Hands-on method is more suitable.
The Hands-On training program can be designed using different techniques that will assist the trainer in achieving the desired objectives. The training program should consist of: –
- Simulations in the form of situations that occur every day in the social care home can be created and actions of the staff can be judged.
- Business Games and case studies can be conducted where the staff needs to express their views on certain mock situations.
- Interactive videos can be shown to the staff that contains the reactions and actions of the people on the job when they encountered certain situations.
- Presentations can be shown to the staff depicting the possible pros and cons of performing some actions in the given situations.
In a social care home it is very important that the staff and the manager are aligned with the delivery of service that the social care home is offering. For this alignment it is very important the training program that is designed should train the staff well to perform in adverse situations without letting their personal biases affect the work. Trainings form the backbone of any organization and its service delivery.
Forehand, M., 2010. Bloom’s taxonomy. Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology, 41-47.
Vince, R., 1998. Behind and beyond Kolb’s learning cycle. Journal of Management Education, 22(3), 304-319.
Zhang, B. T., 1994. Accelerated learning by active example selection. International Journal of Neural Systems, 5(01), 67-75.
Booth, S. H., Booth, A., & Falzon, L. J., 2003. The need for information and research skills training to support evidence‐based social care: a literature review and survey. Learning in Health and Social Care, 2(4), 191-201.
Rosenstock, I. M., Strecher, V. J., & Becker, M. H., 1988. Social learning theory and the health belief model. Health Education & Behaviour, 15(2), 175-183.
Kolb, D. A., 1981. Learning styles and disciplinary differences. The modern American college, 232-255.