Unit 14 Physiological Principles for HSC-Btechnd

Uses in health and social care

  1. Care
  • All these vital information and recordings are essential in health and social care services setup in planning diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, prognosis, rehabilitation and policy making etc
  • In monitoring course of health/disorder/disease, care planning, care routines, professionals involved, reporting data to professionals, recognizing need for emergency responses
  1. Ethical considerations
  • All this data should be taken and recorded with full ethical consideration and legislation should be followed
  • When taking measures and using data e.g. individual rights, dignity and privacy should be handled with utmost care

3.2 Assess how these routine measures provide information about the body functioning of this person?

These routine measures provide vital stats about the information related to Human Body functioning of an individual person, both normal and abnormal. These statistics serve as the basis for normal ranges of all the vital and critical body functioning measures and hence any disturbance in these range values leads us to the abnormality in body functioning and hence giving details about the illness, sickness or disease of the Human body.
Some of the information these measures provide about the functioning of the human body are as follows –

  • Age is the progressive maturity of all the Human Body cells, tissues, organs, organs systems and overall structure over the period of time. During due course, all these originate, grow, destroy, re-grow and mature over the age, finally to be dead after certain time
  • This vital data recorded gives health and social care a huge comparison of structural and functional changes between young adulthood, later life and old age; if appropriate, developmental change during childhood and adolescence
  • The changes in external or internal environment of Human Body leads to its effects/impacts on its normal routine functioning and may end up with unwarranted results
  • These effects/impacts can be of majorly three types –
  1. Physical – Absence, loss or impaired function of tissues, organs and systems e.g. incontinence, ataxia; degeneration of structure e.g. bone in osteoporosis, cartilage in osteoarthritis, pulmonary tissue in emphysema, neural tissue in Parkinson’s disease etc
  2. Psychological – These are the effects, such as, confidence, cognitive abilities, invasion of privacy (e.g. assistance with toileting, bathing)
  3. Social – These are the external agent effects and can be of following examples, such as isolation due to hearing loss, loss of mobility and autonomy etc
Common disorders
  • When the vital stats of human body doesn’t lie in the normal ranges prescribed and show disturbances in patterns, the direct effect on the functioning of human body is shown by abnormal patterns, these patterns are termed as sickness, disease, disorder or illness etc
  • These abnormalities can be of two types, one is acquired due to inheritance or from birth, i.e. genetic and second is acquired from the environment, i.e. infection
  • Some of the common disorders acquired from inheritance are as relevant ones, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and autoimmune related, pulmonary disease, inherited, congenital and degenerative syndromes
  • These are the acquired abnormalities in human body functioning from the immediate external environment
  • These are generally caused by external agents such as microorganisms and are examples of abnormalities as encountered in e.g. wounds, respiratory tract and urinary tract
  • These show signs and symptoms related to physiology of the Human Body
  • Whereas, human body has an automatic response generated in response to these attacks from external environment, which uses the principles of an immunological response and factors that influence it e.g. age, nutritional status, immune-suppression from cancer therapy or underlying disease states (Greenhalgh, 1999)

3.3 Examine how such information about the body functioning may inform care planning for this person?

For this person with obesity and an age of 65 years with a busy lifestyle and less physical activity, the symptoms like fever and flu can be really deceptive and may be onset of anything critical. Once he reports to the General Practioners (GP) based on the above vital data and the information derived from it about the human body functioning, following processes maybe undertaken to prove out the abnormality based on the symptoms and aligning it with changes in the vital stats of his body and hence Care planning can be undertaken for mitigating him with the diagnosed illness –

Routine care
  • All these information derived from the recorded primary data and the raw data itself has got a huge implication on health and social care
  • As already discussed above about the potential of raw data, its importance and utilization, similarly the functioning information of Human Body and implication of this data in understanding it further ahead helps health and social care services with activities of daily living; general consequences for care or treatment e.g. by drugs, surgery; infection control; rehabilitation; principles of palliative care etc
Symptoms and alignment with changes in vital stats
  • Observable changes in body weight, body temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, food and fluid intake, excretion and its composition etc performed, observed and recorded by the GP for this patient
  • Derived measures, such as BMI and nutritional health are calculated for this obese man by his GP
Based on these information, GP
  • Will ascertain the primary diagnostic assertion
  • Prescribing treatment and therapy
  • Confirming it further with advanced testing
  • Releasing the patient with immediate relief
  • Mitigating possible relapse possibilities (Greenhalgh, 2005)

Task 4.

4.1 Explain how her age may have affected her body structure and functioning (Nervous, Respiratory and Integumentary systems)?

Due to age, the effects and impacts on the old woman’s body structure and functioning are as follows –

Nervous System
  • Over the age the smallest unit of Brain, the Neurons are originated, destroyed, re-grown and finally matured and ultimately death
  • The Neuron density in the brain is the signal of the effectiveness and working efficiency of the Human Brain
  • The Neuron density increases with the age from the birth of human being up to a certain level and peaks around the middle ages
  • During the later stages, it starts degenerating and hence the density decreases
  • Since, the density is the measure of Human Brain working, it comprehensively decreases with the age as the density decreases; hence, for this old lady, living in the care home, the brain functioning is of limited strength and she needs care and has specific needs to be taken care of
Respiratory System
  • Same as the brain and neuron, the basic unit of Lungs, the vital most organ of the respiratory system, is Alveoli
  • Alveoli are the functional tiny sacs which are the basic component of the lungs
  • The gaseous exchange takes place at the surface of the alveoli
  • The Oxygen carrying capacity in the blood is directly proportional to the amount of area made available for the gaseous exchange in the Lungs and which is directly proportional to the number of Alveoli
  • Same as Neurons, Alveoli also increases in their concentration during the initial growth years and peak around middle ages with decline in concentration thereafter
  • Hence, similarly as brain activity, respiratory function of the old lady is also hampered and less efficient leading to various symptoms like uneasiness in breathing, hypertension (due to less oxygen and metabolism) etc
Integumentary System
  • As she ages, the external peripheral of Human Body also starts showing signs of maturity with loosened skin, body deformity and changes in overall physical structure
  • Due to her arthritis, her legs and associated movement muscles and bones are highly deformed and inefficient causing problems in movement and transportation
Other Systems
  • Since, she is suffering from Diabetes; her Insulin production capacity is hampered
  • Insulin is required in Human Body for the glucose production from higher molecules and hence lack of glucose molecules, the energy store house of the body, leads to fatigue and other distortions
  • As human brain requires fresh glucose for its normal functioning, the lack of glucose leads to impaired brain activity
  • Glucose is also required for the Thromboplastin production, which is required for the clotting of blood and hence covering of any wound or cut on the skin and creating a protective layer from the external world, gets affected and hence wounds are not healed as per their normal due course (Freedman, 2000)

4.2 Assess the impacts of the above mentioned conditions on her body structure and functions?

As already mentioned, following are the impacts, old age and other ailments has brought to her body structure and functions –

Due to Old Age
  • Impaired vision and chronic visibility loss
  • Loose skin and changes in outer body structure
  • Impaired brain and sensory functions
  • Respiratory ineffectiveness and problems in breathing
  • Less sharp senses, such as touch, feel, taste, smell and audibility
  • Impaired physical stamina and strength
Due to diabetes, hypertension and arthritis
  • Loss of production of glucose
  • Loss of brain function due to glucose insufficiency
  • Elongated wound healing and body self immunity mechanism, due to lack of glucose and diabetes
  • Due to hypertension, high blood pressure flowing in the body
  • Chances of cardio-vascular system failure
  • Impaired movement due to arthritis
  • Lack of RBCs and destruction of the existing ones due to immunosuppressive conditions of the body etc (Sidell, 1995)

4.3 Relate the effects of her medical conditions including infection to the routine care?

The effects of her medical conditions, including the infection in her routine care are as follows –

  1. Her medical conditions arouse from hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and hence not healing of wound and related infection have got a severe impact on her regular care planning
  2. As discussed, already impaired glucose production due to lack of insulin production leads to many symptoms and changes in Human Body, from immune-suppression to impaired brain activity
  3. Now care planning for existing conditions will include, external insulin dosage, immune-booster drugs for healing up of the wound
  4. Whereas, these techniques will intervene in her other conditions, like arthritis where an immune-booster drug will create havoc and will impact the prognosis or the treatment of arthritis by rejecting the treatment due to increased immune-biology
  5. Her hypertension will impair additional secretion, even after insulin injections, due to increased transportation, excretion and breakdown of glucose molecules compared to its secretion (Pincus, 2002)


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