Unit 13 Physiological Principles for HSC-Btechnd

Task 2.

2.1 Explain how his body responds to his physical activities (particularly in relation to musculo-skeletal system, cardiovascular system and respiratory system)?

Response of Human Body in terms of the young 25 year old individual as per various systems is as follows –

Musculo-skeletal system –
  • The musculo-skeletal system of Human Body is made up of various bones (outer structure of the skeleton), muscles, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints and other connective tissues
  • It also stores bone marrow, which is the production factory of the all important Red Blood Cells and stores Calcium and Phosphates required for the Human Body
  • Due to the nature of his job, the body of the young individual is attuned for a lot of physical work and exercises, which includes, movement of various bones, muscles, cartilages and other organs of this system
  • The movement of various parts of Human Body, be it during walking, running, typing or any other movement, is solely responsible because of the process of muscle relaxation and contraction
  • Now in the case of muscle relaxation and contraction, various chemical reactions also do take place, such as various protein reactions, facilitated by catalyst ions like Magnesium and Calcium
  • The process of muscle relaxation and contraction also utilizes Oxygen molecules and produces Carbon-Dioxide during the combustion of stored glucose or glycogen molecules
  • During excessive fatigue or muscle movement, some leftovers or non reacted molecules remain like lactic acid and which causes the pain or burning sensation in Human Body
  • For this young individual the strength bearing capacity of muscles and bones are already enhanced and keeps on increasing during the build-up exercise or training regimen to the marathon
  • For avoiding any kinds of wear, tear, torn, pain and burns in the muscles, he should give proper relaxation time to the muscles and rest them after frequent work outs
  • He should build the stamina of this system over a period of six months, which is the build-up time for the marathon also (Frankel, 1970)
Cardiovascular system
  • Since it is made up of Heart and other blood vessels and the main function is to pump blood, the central Human Body fluid
  • As already discussed, the primary role of blood pumped by heart is to transport various molecules, including Oxygen and Carbon-Dioxide, it is very important to understand the role of these molecules for Human Body
  • It is well understood that Oxygen is required for many purpose in Human Body from metabolism to muscle movement to Brain functioning
  • For this young individual the oxygen carrying capacity of his blood vessel/cells and heart rate mechanism is already efficient because of his daily lifestyle
  • During the extensive human body endurance like marathon, the need of Oxygen is immense and hence a proper functioning Heart with enhanced capacity to pump Blood and hence Oxygen and faster gaseous exchange at lungs is very much important
  • The contraction and dilation blood vessels as per Human physiological stricture and its impact from external environment should be extremely efficient, if he has to run marathon in next six months (Dampney, 1994)
Respiratory System
  • As mentioned above, the main function of this system comprising of Lungs and other organs, is to provide the gaseous exchange between the Human Body and the atmosphere
  • Also, discussed the need of Oxygen molecules, it is equally important during high intensity exercise of human body that, Carbon-Dioxide molecules are excreted from the Human Body as fast as possible
  • So the enhanced capacity of Human Lungs is very important for undergoing any strenuous physical exercise like marathon running
  • It is quite evident from this young lad’s physical regime of daily that this system is already up to a certain level of efficiency which needs to be improved over a period of six months during the buildup to the marathon, to ensure proper Oxygen supply to him during his endeavor (Bates, 1985)

2.2 Discuss how body responses are explained by cellular and tissue structure and physiology?

Cellular physiology –
  • Cell is the smallest unit of Human Body and totality it is approx. 37 trillion cells which make up a Human Body
  • It comprises of all the vital fundamental living mechanism required for Human Body to survive, from nutrients to genetic material code information
  • The biological study of the cell’s mechanism and interaction in its environment is known as Cellular physiology
  • It often specifically applies to the physiology consisting of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction
  • As all these together covers, food digestion, blood circulation, muscle contraction and neuro transmission, it is very vital for any human being and especially for people with such hectic physical lives, as this young individual
  • As discussed, muscle contraction encompasses many chemical reactions and is very necessary, since it undergoes proper contraction and relaxation and to ensure this proper supply of various ions and protein molecules is very necessary at the cellular levels, which comes from the supply from the metabolism process
  • During the run-up to the marathon event the young individual has to compliment his strenuous physical work regime with proper diet and supplements, so as to buildup its cellular storage (Pozzan, 1994)
Tissue Physiology
  • Multiple cells combine and are organized to form tissues
  • Tissues when organize, they form organs
  • Tissues are formed by an aggregation of like cells carrying out a like function
  • Cells are linked together by  and are supported by a  which they themselves secrete and provide a structural framework for tissue structure
  • There are four major types of tissues, including, epithelial, connective, neural and muscular
  • During any physical activity and especially in heightened period like marathon, all these four types play a vital role
  • Epithelial tissues together form the skin and covering layers for various organs, these are the outer layers of Human Bodies and withstand the most tear and wear in support to their function of keeping foreign particles out of Human Body and hence during marathon, the most degradation and regeneration will happen to this consortium
  • Secondly, as discussed connective tissues help in holding up of vital organs and provide structure and support, hence are very important for any physical activity
  • Thirdly, neural tissues forms the basis for brain and other neuro system organs and hence are essentially vital for processing the whole Human Body
  • Finally the largest and biggest role is played by muscular tissues, in the form of formation of muscles and hence the already discussed complete process of muscle movement required for carrying out any activity like running in marathon and hence its care is the most essential for this young individual (Jee, 2001)

2.3 Further, explain how his body will coordinate its internal activities?

Internal activities and their coordination during the run-up and the actual marathon running by the young individual are as follows –

  1. Physiology of exercise is a concept that addresses the central issue as to how the body adapts itself to the demands of strenuous physical activity like marathon running
  2. Body’s metabolism (the overall rate of activity in the body’s processes) increases; the running of a marathon may increase metabolic rates to many time their normal level
  3. Thermoregulation is the ability of the body to maintain the optimal internal temperature levels for the function of all organs in different external environment conditions and it is rapidly adapted in the case of marathon running or such levels of exercise, as body become habituated to fluctuations to rise and fall in temperatures in and out of the body frequently
  4. Apart from all the changes and effects mentioned above, such as strengthening of the cardiovascular and respiratory muscles, expansion of blood oxygen levels, such changes, i.e. thermoregulation and metabolism adjustment makes it a cohesive effort from the body to endure and with stand the new changed circumstances
  5. Increased conservation of sodium to promote more effective hydration (to preserve the optimal proportion of sodium to water, a part of the body’s Osmo-regulatory system)
  6. Body composition is affected by two distinct exercise mechanisms during the build-up and the actual marathon, i.e. a reduction in the percentage of body fat and the increase of lean muscle mass developed through specialized exercise
  7. Maintaining homeostasis is of prime importance to the Human Body, when exercising in any environment. Failing to do so will result in a decrease in performance and an increase in the risk of developing potentially fatal situations, whereas, a proper acclimatization and routine build-up to the marathon level stress and adapting it in due course, may lead to body coordinating its internal processes and work cohesively giving the desired physical results and achievements (Kyrolainen, 2000)

Task 3.

3.1 Explain how routine measures are recorded and what are their uses in health and social care?

Department of Health care is the department of Government of UK, it is primarily responsible for various policies related with health and adult social care services in England. It is also responsible for the National Health Services of England. Health and Social Care in UK is majorly guaranteed by the government setup with ancillary private intervention, which also works in the government environmental ambit. NHS is responsible for the implementation of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 of England also (Curtis, 2012). As per Health and Social Care Act 2012, the vital statistics required by it for formulating its policies and guidelines, to be implemented under NHS are as follows –

  • Relevant visual observations, such as weight/height, temperature, pulse, respiration rate, blood pressure, food intake, fluid intake, fluid output, indicator tests on urine (e.g. glucose, protein);
  • Recording of these measures are also very important for any patient visiting the primary Health and Social Care setup, the factors to be looked while recording these are correct units, tabulated, charts, graphs, interpretation of records
  • The information in these records, which are not directly observable by human eyes, and need some kind of assistance or tools, such as stethoscope or a microscope, should also be recorded
  • Information as relevant to measurements generally taken is heart rate, peak flow, over/under weight, hydration, diabetic stability and infection etc
  • The accuracy of these vital information or records, gathered at the primary, secondary or tertiary care clinics under the health and social care services, has to be maintained, so as to create a data bank or a repository. This data bank later can be analysed to take information out of it, which will serve as an insight for designing of future policies and decision making
  • There are possible threats of any kind of discrepancy might creep, in terms of errors and faults
  • Some common errors while recording data are as follows – Sources of error, Reliability, Validity; Concept of normal range, hypo- and hyper- values
Derived measures
  • Based on these vital statistics gathered at the frontline level and recorded in databases, many derived measure are also calculated and analysed
  • Information from derived measures such as relevant readings of Body Mass Index (BMI), fluid balance, nutritional health (intake against requirement e.g. energy balance); monitoring (regular recording) and variations in measures over time are equally important (Fitzpatrick, 1992).Order Now

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