Unit 12 Physiological Principles for HSC-Btechnd

ProgrammeBTEC Higher National Diploma in Health and Social Care
Unit Number and TitleUnit 12 Physiological Principles for HSC
QFC LevelLevel 4
Unit CodeA/601/1608


Physiology means the scientific study of functions in living systems and organisms. It is a sub-discipline of Biology and includes the in depth analysis and study of how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living organism.
Physiology is further divided into, Human Physiology, Animal Physiology, Plant Physiology, Cellular Physiology and microbial physiology, i.e. bacterial or viral.
Human Physiology deals with complete human body, its anatomy, functions of various systems, its process (both physical and chemical) and the complete structure of human being.
The various structure and functioning aspects, with impacts from external, as well as internal mechanisms on it is being discussed here. The alignment of our external environment with human body, i.e. creating health and social care setups, as per the requirements of human body is also understood.

Unit 12 Physiological Principles for HSC-Btechnd

Task 1.

1.1 Outline the anatomical features in each body system with identifying main functions?

Human Body is the total composition structure of human being. It comprises mainly head, neck, trunk, arms, hands, legs and feet. The human body is made of smallest unit known as Cells; these trillions of cells together constitute human organs or body parts and cohesively form Human Body. The anomalies in any of these organs or systems lead to malfunctioning of this human body system and the human being is considered to be sick, ill or diseased. These anomalies have to be mitigated so as to cure the human being of its illness, disease or sickness. To maintain the Homeostasis, which is interaction of many systems and mechanisms is very necessary for the human body to work normally. A system in Human Body is a combination of two or more interacting organs, which work cohesively to maintain the function of that system. All these systems when interact with each other and work in tandem, the Human Body homeostasis is achieved (Marieb, 2007).
The detailed analysis of each body system and its function in overall human body structure is as follows –

Nervous System
  • It consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS), i.e. the Brain and Spinal Cord and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • The main organs as discussed in this system are, Brain and Spinal Cord and this system works on the homogenous working of these two organs only
  • The main function of the brain is thought, emotions, memory and sensory processing, i.e. five senses, Touch, Taste, Smell, Vision and Hearing
  • It coordinates between the five vital organs of senses namely, Nose, Skin, Ear, Eyes and Tongue
  • The main function of both these organs is to gather information from all these organs and then dissipate the processed information for performing their original intended functions
  • The Brain is the processing unit; where as Spinal Cord with the network of neuro-skeletal muscles transports this information to and fro from all over the body parts
  • The information about the body’s environment, its processing and feedbacks accordingly are the sole responsibility of this system (Russell, 1997)
Musculoskeletal System
  • It consists of Human Skeleton and attached muscles
  • Skeleton is the hard structure which gives shape and features apart from strength to Human Body
  • Skeleton includes bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilages
  • The major function of bones apart from structural is to have bone marrow, the Red Blood Cell forming factory
  • The bone is storage center of Calcium and Phosphate (Herzog, 1999)
Circulatory System
  • It is also known as Cardio-Vascular System
  • It includes all the blood vessels along-with central blood pumping station Heart
  • The main function of Heart is to pump blood all over the Human Body
  • The main function of the Blood, a Fluid, is to provide nutrients to all parts of the Human Body
  • One of the main functions of Blood is to transport the two most vital gases for human life, Oxygen and Carbon-Dioxide from all over the body (cells) to heart (for purification through liver) and back
  • Blood also provides the medium for cells and other molecules to transfer and grow (Noordergraf, 1979)
Respiratory System
  • It consists of organs like Nose, Nasopharynx, trachea and lungs
  • The main role of this system is of Gaseous exchange between Human Body and the environment, i.e. taking in Oxygen from atmosphere and supplying back Carbon-Dioxide and water back to the atmosphere (Agostoni, 1964)
Digestive System
  • It also consists of various human body organs like mouth, esophagus, stomach, gut, liver, gall bladder, pancreas and salivary glands
  • The main function of this Human Body system is to intake food and other energy resources with water from external environment
  • After the food and water intake, the next function is of breaking down the complex food molecules into easily storable and usable molecules like glucose, water, hydrogen, carbon-dioxide etc
  • These stored molecules are used as and when required by the body and are stored in various locations across Human Body up-till then (Stevens, 2004)
Integumentary System
  • This system of body consists of external organs such as skin, nails and hair
  • This body system is responsible for acting as a natural barrier to Human Body for all the microbes and other organisms and other particles from entering it
  • It also acts as a sensory system with Neuro-feedback mechanism and providing information about the external Human Body environment to the Brain (Rawles, 1960)
Urinary System
  • It includes kidneys, Ureters, Bladder and Urethra
  • It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body (Maxie, 1993)
Reproductive System
  • It consists of Gonads and the internal and external Sex organs, such as vagina and penis
  • The main function of this system is to reproduce in Human race
  • This system is solely responsible for all kinds of sexual behavior shown by human race (Reynolds, 1992)
Immune System
  • It includes White Blood Cells, the Thymus, the Lymph Nodes, and Lymph Channels
  • The main function of this system is to act as a protecting mechanism for the Human Body for any potential threat from the foreign particle or microbe infection (Janeway, 2001)
Lymphatic System
  • The main function of this system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells
  • It comprises of Lymph nodes and other Lymph organs, quite same as circulatory system (Rouviere, 1938)
Endocrine System
  • It consists of primary endocrine glands like Gonads, Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenals, Pancreas and Parathyroids etc
  • The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function (Harris, 1955)

1.2 Define Homeostasis, negative and positive feedback, provide an example for each?

  • It is a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant
  • It regulates its internal environment and maintains a stable, relatively constant condition; such as maintaining an equal temperature, or acid balance pH
  • A relatively constant pH, temperature, blood-flow and position is necessary for the survival of any Human Body and to function it properly
  • It maintains the stability of the human body’s internal environment in response to changes in external conditions
  • It is a  highly complex interactions to maintain balance or return systems to functioning within a normal range
  • Such interactions within the body facilitate compensatory changes supportive of physical and psychological functioning
  • The major Organs which help in maintaining Human Homeostasis are Kidneys, Brain and Liver
  • Here, Liver is responsible for metabolizing toxic substances along-with carbohydrate metabolism
  • Kidneys regulate, water, salt and pH levels in the blood and the overall Human Body
  • Brain acts as a Central Processing Unit of the Human Body (Lerner, 1954)
Negative Feedback
  • It is the mechanism of controlling the output or activity of any organ or system in the Human Body and brings back any abnormality to the normal Human Body functioning ranges
  • The best possible way example of negative feedback in Human Body is Blood Pressure management
  • Any change in blood volumes in the blood vessels bring signal to Brain and which in turn signals heart to increase or decrease blood-pressure and flow and hence blood vessels dilate/expand and constrict (Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction). This change in blood vessels lead to lesser or more blood flow and pressure
  • Some other examples can be when Human Body is deprived of Food and Energy, a feedback goes to brain and it starts signaling Body to reduce metabolism and mantian its energy levels in the starvation mode
  • Temperature Control is also one of the examples of Negative Feedback in Homeostasis maintenance (Turrigiano, 2007)
Positive Feedback
  • Positive feedback is a process in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system or Homeostasis, include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation
  • One of the examples of this is the onset of contractions during childbirth. When a contraction occurs, the hormone Oxytocin causes a nerve stimulus, which stimulates the hypothalamus to produce more Oxytocin, which increases uterine contractions. This results in contractions increasing in amplitude and frequency
  • A spike in Estrogen during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle causes ovulation (Peters, 2007).Order Now

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