UKCBC Unit 4 : Organization and Behavior-Btechnd

LO 3: Motivational Theories

P 3.1 Changes and impact of leadership styles

ASDA is a retail chain which has to implement various kinds of changes at times in order to adapt the various changes in the environment like political, technological or laws and policies. It is being observed that the organizational change of any kind within the company face many kinds of issues from the employees as they are not ready for such changes many a time. These changes can be implemented by the organization with the help of change management which ensures the successful implementation of change within the organization. ASDA may look forward for the changes in the billing system or the outlay of the stores which may require drastic changes within the stores and the way employees work there. Such changes within the organization can be implemented by making employees aware about the changes before hand and getting their feedbacks on the same. This helps the organization in understanding the viewpoint of the employees about the changes within the organization. Leadership style of the managers plays an important role in the process. An autocratic manager would directly implement the changes by forcing his decisions on the employees while a consultative manager would first discuss all the aspects of the changes with the employees and would take the decisions. The motivation of the employees is highly dependent on the leadership styles of manager as the manager who forces his decisions on the employees are not usually liked by the employees while the managers who have the nature of consulting with the employees before making finally decisions are liked by the employees. Such managers motivate the employees to work in the changed environment and understand their viewpoints about the changes. So, it can be stated that the leadership style play an important role in the motivation of employees during the change in the organization (Peña, 2001).

P 3.2 Application of Motivational Theories

There are various motivational theories defined over the time and are applicable in different kinds of organizations according to their goals and objectives and the motivation level of the employees working within the organization. These motivation theories basically help the managers to understand the motivational factors for the different kind of employees working under them and suggest them the applicable motivational factor in order to motivate them. These motivational theories are used by the organization to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the employees over the time. Retail chain organization where the employees are assigned targets for their works, there is much use of motivational theories in order to motivate them in achieving their targets. Following motivational theories are the important motivational theories that are in most use:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:

Maslow’s identified various needs of the employees and designed them in a hierarchical manner in order to assign the priorities to these needs of individuals. According to him, there are various kinds of needs of an individual and with the passing time, these needs changes. An individual who has completed first level of needs looks for next level of needs and so on. So, the motivation factors for an individual will be those factors who will address the needs of next level. The different levels of needs defined by Maslow are:

  • First Level: Physiological needs
  • Second Level: Safety needs
  • Third Level: Social needs
  • Fourth Level: Self-esteem needs
  • Fifth Level: Self-actualization needs

Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:

Hertzberg identified various factors that are important for the employees working within the organization or can be said that the factors that results in an effective work by the individuals working in an organization. These factors are being divided by Hertzberg in two categories i.e. hygienic and motivational factors. Hygienic factors help the employees in providing with a hygienic and suitable work environment while motivational factors increase the motivation level of the individuals working within the organization and increase their efficiency. Hygienic factors identified by him are security, company policies, salary, work condition, supervision, peer relationship, leadership etc. while motivational factors were identified as achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, interesting work, advancement etc. It is necessary for ASDA to provide the employees with the environment which have all the hygienic factors in order to get an effective work from them.

McClelland’s Learned Need Theory:

McClelland identified the learning experience as the important factor for the motivation. According to him, individuals working within the organization can be categorized in three important categories according to their needs from the organization i.e. Need for achievement, Need for affiliation, Need for Power. He mentioned that these needs are dependent on the learning and experience level of the employees and the employees at one level can be motivated by identification of his needs for another level. It is somewhat similar to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs but differ in the context.

Finally, it can be said that the above discussed theories for the motivation of employees are important theories and should be used by ASDA according to the employees in order to motivate them for effective and efficient working. It can be easily recommended to the management of ASDA to utilize the benefits of Maslow’s hierarchy needs theory in order to get the effective and efficient work from the employees (Rastogi, 2006).

P 3.3 Application of motivational theories for Managers

Motivational theories are of much use for managers working within an organization as the managers can utilize the effectiveness of the employees by using any of these motivational theories according to the motivational level of the employees. Managers identify the factors that can help the employees in working more effectively and reward employees accordingly in order to motivate them for effective working. It is already known that the employees get motivated according to their needs for the work. Motivational theories are applied by the managers according to the requirements from the businesses. Hertzberg’s motivational hygiene theory can be used by the managers of ASDA in a manner that it is necessary for the employees to provide a hygienic business environment which help in attracting more customers as well due to the direct interaction of employees with the customers in same environment. Managers assess the motivational factors for the different employees and according to that they reward the employees and get the work done by employees in more effective and efficient manner. So, it can be concluded by stating that motivational theories are much helpful for the managers in order to get work done by the employees in a better way (Ocholi, 2006).Order Now

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