UKCBC Unit 3 : Organization and Behavior-Btechnd
Organization behavior is basically the behaviour of the people in the organization, processes adopted by the organization, management processes and environmental interactions within the organization. It is the combination of behaviour of all these aspects within the organization and has direct impact on the operations of the organization. Various aspects of organizational behaviour like the organization structure and culture which define the organizational behaviour, management approaches and leadership style, motivation theories and the use of teamwork etc. within the organization are important to be discussed in order to understand the organizational behaviour in details. These concepts also help in the creation of better work environment within the organization by aligning the organizational behaviour according to the goals and objectives of the organization. The behaviour of the employees within the organization defines their attitude and performance within the organization which has a direct impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. It becomes too important for organizations to understand and implement all these concepts in proper manner. This report would aim at discussing all these concepts in the relation of a multinational company named as ASDA plc which have its more than 500 retail stores all over the world. This report would also implement some concepts in relation to the British Airways (BA) to understand all the concepts in an effective manner.
LO1: Organizational Structure and Culture
P 1.1 Organizational Structure and culture in BA and ASDA
ASDA is the multinational organizational having business of retail chain and has presence in more than 15 countries with its more than 500 stores. British Airways is the main airlines service provider which claims to have the largest number of fleet size. Organizational structure of any organization defines the way responsibilities and decision making authorities have been defined within the organization while organization culture defines the way the employees, processes and management decisions of the organizations are taken. Various kind of organizational structures that can be found usually are flat structure, tall structure and matrix structure which are being created on the basis of line of authority distribution within the organization. Organization cultures that can be prevalent within the organizations are task culture, role culture, power culture and person culture depending on the behaviour of the employees which is usually instilled in the employees through the past leaders of the organization. Based on the various facts and research, it can be easily said that ASDA follows the bureaucratic structure and role culture while BA follows the entrepreneurial structure and power culture. In a bureaucratic structure and role culture, employees are empowered and job security is ensured and the decisions are divided on the various levels according to the criticality of the decisions. In an entrepreneurial structure and power culture, employees are not empowered and most of the decisions are taken by the top management. In ASDA, organization is being divided among divisions and division heads are being empowered to take decisions while in BA all the decisions are taken by top management. Both the organizations have different structure and culture which depends on the goals and objectives of the organization however structure and culture are related with each other.
P 1.2 Organizational structure and culture influencing behaviour of employees in ASDA
Previous subsection talked about the organizational structure and culture of ASDA in brief manner. The organization follows a bureaucratic structure and role culture which have a direct or indirect impact on the behaviour of the employees working within the organization. It is being observed that the freedom given for taking the small decisions give the employees a feel of responsibility to them and motivates them for more responsible behaviour within the organization while when employees are termed just as a medium of work within the organization, then the employees behaviour in different manner and don’t work in more responsible manner. The structure and culture of the organization gave them such freedom or rights. The employees working in the ASDA at a lower level are provided with a flexible work environment and they have to report directly to the division head that have the authorities to take the decisions, so in such an environment employees are encouraged to work in flexible manner which helps the employees in behaving in a responsible manner. The structure and culture prevalent within ASDA has an impact on the behaviour of the employees within the organization and also impacts the results of the organization in a significant manner.
P 1.3 Employee Behaviour in ASDA
Behaviour of employees within the organization is an integral part of the organizational behaviour in collective manner. There are several factors which are directly related to the employees and some are related to the work environment of the organization which has direct or indirect influence on the employee behaviour within the organization. ASDA follows a bureaucratic structure and role culture. Some of the important factors which influence the employee behaviour within ASDA can be listed in following manner:
- Personality of the individual defines the behaviour of the employees within the organization. It also related to personal and professional development.
- Perception of the individual about the organization’s goals and objectives and his responsibility shapes his behaviour.
- Attitude of individual about the work and his own goals and objectives creates his behaviour at workplace.
- The learning level of individual defines the way he works for the organization.
- Apart from above mentioned individual factors, the factors which are related to the organizational environment and have influence on the employees’ behaviour are leadership, communication, motivation, organizational structure and culture, group working, peer experience etc.
The above-mentioned list of the factors which influence the behaviour of employees within ASDA is not exhaustive; there can be several other factors as well which influence behaviour of employees in some manner. Managers use various techniques in order to align employees’ behaviour according to the objectives and goals of organization (Dolphin, 2003).
LO 2: Management Approaches and Leadership
P 2.1 Leadership Styles
A leader is a person, who has influence on individuals or groups working in an organization, assists them in the formation of goals, and leads them in the achievement of those defined goals by providing them with an environment which helps in the effective working and learning process. The main leader of any organization is its CEO. The leaders have their own style of working and which is known as their leadership style and it differs from one leader to another. Leadership style of CEO of an organization has a direct impact on the performance of the organization. CEO of ASDA is Mr Andy Clarke has his own personality which defines his leadership style and CEO of BA is Mr Keith Williams has some different personality which defines his leadership style. The main type of leadership style that can be found in the leaders on the basis of their traits are autocratic (tells), persuasive (sells), participative (consults) and democratic (joins). Mr Keith Williams take all the decisions about the organization by itself after the discussion with the boards of directors, so he possess a persuasive kind of leadership where he assumes that his decisions would be accepted by the employees and would be motivated for the work within the organization. Mr Andy Clarke is a kind of democratic person who takes the decisions after discussion with different divisional heads and most of the decisions are taken on the basis of consensus. There are transformational and transactional leadership styles as well according to the thought processes of leaders. Keith Williams can be considered as transactional leader while Andy Clarke as the transformational leader. These leadership styles affect the behaviours of employee to a great extent (Stacks, 2013).
P 2.2 Organizational Theory Applicable at ASDA
Organizational theory helps in identifying various approaches in order to understand the organization. It studies the organization from various perspectives like social organizations, businesses and how they are related with the operating environment. The main organizational theories that can be practiced within the organizations are scientific management, bureaucracy, systems approach, classical administration, human relations approach and contingency theories. These theories differ in their way of working of management and have their own advantages and disadvantages. ASDA follows contingency theory. These theory changes from one organization to another depending upon the management style followed within the organization. Contingency theory suggests that there can be best form that an organization or management can adopt. It states that most suitable form is achieved by the various factors surrounding the environment. These organization theories have an impact on the management practices within the organization. Contingency theory applicable within ASDA has a direct impact on the management practices of ASDA. The main tasks that are performed by managers within an organization are planning, staffing, organizing, controlling and leading. The organizational theories define the relationship existing between freedom of employees and the organizational control along with the nature of authority and power existing within the organization. It also defines the relationship existing between society and organizations along with the relationship between collectivism and individualism in the modern form of organizations. The practices of management are directly impacted on the basis of these relationships. Finally it can be concluded that the contingency theory applicable at ASDA form the management practice within the organization which aims at achievement of goals and objectives in most effective and efficient manner.
P 2.3 Management Approaches
Management of any organization play an important role in the success of any organization as it involves the management of individuals or human capital working within the organization who contributes to the organizational success. The main functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, staffing, motivating, creating, communicating and controlling. All these functions are directly related to the management of the employees working for an organization. A successful management within the organization results in the successful organization. There are various kinds of management approaches followed by the organization in order to achieve success in their goals and objectives. The management plays various kinds of role within the organization like interpersonal, informational and decisional. Interpersonal role involves interactions and coordination with the employees of organization while informational role involve sharing, handling and analysing various information related to the organization. Decisional role of management requires it to take various decisions that are helpful for organization. Management approach followed in ASDA performs these entire defined roles according to the situation as it follows contingency theory of organizational. All the decisions are taken by the management to help in better results (Collins, 1996).Order Now