Travel And Tourism
Travel And Tourism historical developments in the travel and tourism sector supported by a timeline chart of major developments over the period
Travel And Tourism During the olden times, travelling was undertaken only under conditions of absolute necessity. The people refrained from the travelling activities owing a variety of factors like fear of contracting incurable diseases from the people in the foreign lands, due to unavailability of comfortable modes of transportation, lack of knowledge about the exact location of the places and similar such conditions.
Slowly, with the advent of modes of transportation, people started travelling as a means to shift to residential places with better availability of food and other opportunities. They also started to undertake trips for religious purposes, to places of religious importance, like temples, mosques and churches. The localites started providing food and shelter to the travellers who commuted from faraway places. This s how the first business related to travel and tourism came into existence.
Modern day travelling is undertaken for a variety of reasons by the people. Some are for leisure activities, while some are for business purposes. The affluent people travel to exotic locations like islands while the middle class tourists prefer visiting with scenic beauty and rich cultural heritage, like the churches in London, the Science museum and locations like that. The tourist companies came into existence much later but they have made the activity of tourism much easier they provide all the comforts to the customers and cater to their specific needs and requirements. This encourages more number of tourists to visit the places and thus, helps in earning huge revenues for the country.
Fig 1- The timeline of the major developments in travelling
1.2 Explain the structure of travel and tourism sector. Create a diagram to show the structure of travel and tourism sector, followed by an explanation.
Travel and tourism sector is a fast growing sector, which is evolving with every passing moment. Travel and tourism sector can be broken down into few essential components, which forms its basic structure. A diagram explains the structure of the travel and tourism sector very clearly.
Fig 2: The Structure of the travel and tourism Sector
The essential components are all interconnected to give a properly functional travel and tourism sector. The essential components are:
Transportation- The transportation is an essential component of the travel and tourism sector. The tourists prefer travelling to such locations that are well connected to other parts of the world by a network of railways, roads and airways. The means of transportation should be easily available and affordable so that the tourists could avoid the hassles of arranging for transportation after reaching the destination.
Internet- This is the invention which has drastically changed the face of tourism and has led to a lot of development in this sector. The internet is popular among the customers for retrieving essential information regarding the destination they are about to visit (Nunkoo, 2015). The queries regarding the kind of facilities available in the destinations, the chief sites of visit, the costs to be incurred in the process and various other information can be received by the customers over the net.
Accommodation– Accommodation is one of the essential issue involved tourism. Tourists prefer to travel to those places where they can avail good accommodation facilities like hotels with modern amenities to suit the taste of the travellers (Incera and Fernandez, 2015). The travellers these days are very health conscious and they prefer staying in places where they are free to access the gym and the restaurant should provide food as per their individual choice and requirements.
Tour operators– The business of the tour operators have evolved in modern times to provide the people with the comfort of managing the travel activities, on behalf of them. The tour operators arrange for the travelling activities and offers for affordable packages within which they undertake travelling to a particular destination (Saha and Yap, 2014). For example- Thomas Cook offers a trip to Ireland and Wales, along with the opportunity to experience adventure tourism like snorkelling and paragliding, at an attractive offer price, as a part of the Summer holiday plans, to encourage more number of tourists to visit the UK. This allows the people to gain a plethora of adventurous experiences as well as travel at subsidized prices.
Government- The government rules and policies affects the tourism industry in a large way. The taxes implied on the activities of tourism, the exchange rates of the currency and the political stability of the country are some of the factors that plays a huge role in influencing the tourism industry.
2.1 Provide a power point presentation analysing the function of government, government sponsored bodies and international agencies in travel and tourism
The travel and tourism industry is a major contributor to the economy of the country’s economy. The government plays an important role in influencing this industry and thus, the revenues earned by the country. In order to enhance the revenues and turnover of the country, the government formulates certain rules and policies. These policies always are for the benefits of the travellers and encourage the travellers to visit the country
Influences from the Local Government– They are mainly responsible for the preservation and maintenance of the visitor attraction sites. The visitor attraction sites needs to be maintained so as to preserve the heritage and cultural values of the sites (Ju, 2014). Often the practises of the tourists like writing on the walls of the heritage sites, spoiling the places with wastes and certain such activities leads the places to lose their face value. This is looked after by the local government and they ensure proper waste management, maintenance of the cleanliness and restriction of the harmful activities in order to preserve the sites from damage.
Travel And Tourism
Influences from the Central Government– The central government looks after the policies that attracts the tourists form all around the world to visit their country (Cohen et al., 2014). This includes implementation of proper law cods to ensure the security of the tourists and affordable tax rates and exchange rates so that the trips become pocket-friendly and not a burden to the tourists. The rules regarding the visa policies can also be a major player in influencing the rate of tourist flow in the country. For example- the extension of the period of the visitor’s visa for the Chinese people in London and England, from a period of 6 months to two years was a huge success and record number of Chinese people visited London in the same year and spent lots of money on the tourism activities, which boosted the economy of the country to a great extent.
Influences from the International Organizations– The international organisations like UNWTO looks after the control of the terrorist activities in the country and allows for the establishment of stable political conditions in the country. The peaceful conditions prevailing in the country encourages more number of tourists to visit the country. The international organisations are also responsible for maintaining quarantine in the countries and prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the tourists.
2.2 Make a power point presentation explaining how local and national economic policy influences the success of travel and tourism sector.
Changes in the economic policies of the country; be it local or national, affects the tourism industry. Some of the effects are described as under:
The tax rates prevalent in the country– The higher rates of the taxes make all the commodities expensive. Hence their sale decreases, because the tourists do not prefer to buy more expensive products. The local markets suffer a setback since this is the only means of livelihood for the local people (Wang and Xu, 2015). The tax rates on the products related to tourism must be reduced so that the products and services can be easily availed by the tourists.
The exchange rates of the currency– the higher the exchange rates of currency, the more expensive the country is for visiting. This creates a pressure on the middle-class tourists who prefer to travel only to places which are economical. This affects the tourism sector negatively. The exchange rates must be maintained at a minimum by the concerned government.
The conditions of recession in the country– The recession conditions discourages the inhabitants from spending money on leisure activities like tourism. The number of inbound tourists visiting a particular place decreases when the recession conditions hits the country. For example- when the recession hit UK in the year 2009, the rates of inbound tourism fell for the height of 42% to a meagre of 12% (Zaman et al., 2016). The national economic policies should be so formulated so as to avoid such conditions from occurring in the country.
Incera, A.C. and Fernandez, M.F., 2015. Tourism and income distribution: Evidence from a developed regional economy. Tourism Management, 48, pp.11-20.
Saha, S. and Yap, G., 2014. The moderation effects of political instability and terrorism on tourism development: A cross-country panel analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 53(4), pp.509-521.
Nunkoo, R., 2015. Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management, 46, pp.623-634.
Wang, S. and Xu, H., 2015. Influence of place-based senses of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem and self-efficacy on residents’ attitudes toward tourism. Tourism Management, 47, pp.241-250.
Cohen, S.A., Prayag, G. and Moital, M., 2014. Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), pp.872-909.
Ju, P., 2014. Research on the Internet’s Influence on Perceived Image of Tourism Destination: Based on University Students” Experience. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 4(2), p.151.
Zaman, K., Moemen, M.A.E. and Islam, T., 2016. Dynamic linkages between tourism transportation expenditures, carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and growth factors: evidence from the transition economies. Current Issues in Tourism, .1-16.