Maddox Smith Staff asked 4 years ago

Critical Essay on Contemporary Issues in Education

This assignment builds directly on and further develops the work undertaken for the first assessment task. This assessment task involves the preparation of a critical essay that investigates a contemporary issue in education, and will require you to: outline the nature, background, context and significance of the educational issue; ♦ survey and engage critically with relevant academic literature; ♦ develop a coherent, consistent and persuasive argument, supported by evidence from research literature; and ♦ • Assessment Requirements articulate and present the above elements in a systematic and professional manner, in accordance with academic writing and referencing styles. ♦ The work involved in the preparation of this paper can be undertaken on an individual basis, or on a collaborative basis by partners who investigated the same educational issue for the first assessment task. However, each partner will be required to produce and submit their own critical essay, based on the collaborative work undertaken for the first assessment task and the further research undertaken in subsequent weeks leading up to the due date. Further guidelines for this assessment task will be available on the Moodle website. Word count: 4000 Word limit: 50% Weighting/Value: Criteria for marking: The second assignment will be assessed along a five-point scale against the following criteria: Clear outline of the nature, background, context and significance of the education issue; ♦ Concise definitions of keywords and discussion of relevant concepts; ♦ Critically reflective analysis and synthesis of relevant academic literature; ♦ Balanced discussion and evaluation of other authorial positions, arguments and evidence; ♦ Clear, coherent and consistent development of own position and line of reasoning; ♦ Succinct identification of implications for education research, policy and/or practice; ♦ Persuasive and rigorous argumentation, supported by evidence from academic and other relevant sources; ♦ Systematic, accurate, and professional presentation (proofread, conforming to the conventions of academic writing, with referencing in APA 6 style); and ♦ Completion of all elements of the assessment task, as specified in the EDF4611 Assessment Guidelines (accessible on Moodle). ♦ Learning resources Monash Library Unit Reading List (if applicable to the unit) http://readinglists.lib.monash.edu/index.html Feedback to you Types of feedback you can expect to receive in this unit are: Graded assignments with comments • Extensions and penalties Faculty of Education policy will apply. Assessment Requirements Here is my outline: My topic: How much Code Switching between Arabic and English in EFL classroom in Saudi secondary schools will facilitate the English learning and make the learning process more effective? Investigate Code switching between Arabic and English in FEL class in Saudi From: Inside As learner As teacher From outside As scholar 1. Background/nature/significance of the underlying problem: English is taught in Saudi schools as a foreign language. Students in Saudi start studying English from grade four and they keep studying it until they finish their high schools which has total of nine years of English learning. Also, the English subject as being taught in Saudi has the same amount of teaching in schools just like the other subjects. Arabic is the official language In Saudi and it is essential elements of Saudi identity. Furthermore, it is the language of both education and communication, it is very common that both teachers and students used Arabic in the English classes or what is known as code switching (hereafter CS). CS in language classroom which is a debatable issue, can help students to feel comfortable in English learning and use of English in the classroom (Then and Ting, 2011). According to Alshammari (2011) “Little attention has been paid to the issue of using L1 in the context of the Saudi EFL classroom” (p, 95).Thus, the core concept of my research is how much CS between Arabic and English in EFL classroom in Saudi secondary schools will facilitate the English learning and make the learning process more effective with regards to its functions, teachers and students attitudes towards using it, and with consideration of the EFL teaching policies in Saudi. 2- Key words: Code switching(CS), English as a foreign language (EFL), First language (L1), mother tongue, Target Language. 3. The core concept, emerging themes, issues: A-What is the definition of Code Switching? One of the most interesting phenomena to researchers and students of bilingualism is CS which has arguably dominated the field. There have been contradictory views regarding the effect of CS on second language acquisition, negative views and positive views.There are three major strands in the study of CS and they are: the structural approach ; the psycholinguistic approach and the sociolinguistics approach (Bullock and Toribio, 2009). It has been defined as ” the ability on the part of bilinguals to alternate effortlessly between their two languages (Bullock and Almeida, 2009). Gumperz define it as “the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems”(1982, p, 59). As well as Cook (2001) refer to it as “going from one language to the other in mid- speech when both speakers know the same languages” as cited in (Behera, 2012, p, 83). With regards of the context of Foreign Language classroom, CS means the alternate use of the first language and the target language, as a means of communication by language teachers when they need to do this (Nannapaneni Siva Kumar and Narendra, 2012). B- Main themes, argument,issues: 1- Teachers use of CS and their attitudes toward it Teachers of English as a foreign language usually assert that they did not like use code-switching in the language classroom for many reasons; one of which is that they must only use the target language in the classroom (Ibrahim, Shah, & Armi, 2013). However, Krieger reveals that the “first language usage in the foreign language classroom is sometimes indispensable” ( as cited in Mujiono, Poedjosoedarmo, Subroto, and Wiratno, 2013, p. 62). Moreover, teachers look at CS as an important tool in English classroom (Then and Ting, 2011). 2- students use of code switching and their attitudes toward it: The CS used can attracted the students’ attention and helps to maintain the planned structure of the class, as found by Greggio and Gil (2007) as cited by (Then and Ting, 2011). However, some learners preferred an English-only classroom, because they thought this will give them motivations to communicate in L2 and challenge the difficulties they may face (Sampson, 2012). 3-Functions of code switching: According to Gumperz (1982), there are six functions of Code Switching: quotation, addressee specification, repetition, interjection, message qualification and personification. While, according to Sert (2006), the function of teachers Code Switching in the classroom differs from that of students. Moreover, some research found that code-switching is used in some classrooms by the participants to achieve some pedagogical goals ( Alshammari, 2011) F- The policies of teaching English as a foreign language: In Saudi the socio-cultural settings of English-language and English-medium classrooms is bilingual as both learners and teachers bring their identities and home-community sociolinguistic practices into the classroom, this situation can viewed as “problems”. According to Jenkins “proponents maintain that teachers must be inflexible in prohibiting the use of L1 because L1 usage interferes with L2 acquisition” (2010, p, 459). While, in other countries where policy-makers and other stakeholders have realised the importance of using CS in English classrooms have legitimised its use as well as the identities and practices of both teachers and students are considered as “resources” (Saxena, 2009). 3. Key arguments: A- Arguments for: Some experts advocate that in certain ways CS may facilitate Engli
sh language learning. Also, they claim that CS is a natural phenomenon in EFL classroom where both teachers and students share the same language (Then and Ting, 2011). Gumperz (1983) reveals that CS could be seen as an important discourse strategy for bilinguals. As well as it can considered as a useful method in English classroom interaction (Bista, 2010). In addition, the use of CS as a communicative resource could facilitate learning when students lack proficiency in the language of instruction (Then and Ting, 2011). B- Arguments Against: Some researchers argue that the use of code-switching can affects the learners acquisitions of the target language (Nannapaneni Siva Kumar, & Narendra, 2012). According to Skiba (1997) Teachers’ code- switching in the language classroom can led to students overuse of it which could result in loss of target language fluency in students (Sert, 2005) as citied in (Then and Ting, 2011). 4-Work in progress 1- -The study of code switching from the perspective of the Saudi EFL classroom seems very limited. 2- The use of CS in language classrooms has some valuable advantages. 3-Teachers need to be aware of how much CS they should used in EFL classrooms. 4-. Little studies have been done on the students attitudes toward using CS and the impact of it on their learning process. 5- The overuse of students first language in an English class may compromise learning the target language / the foreign language. 6-More research should be done on Code switching between Arabic and English in EFL classrooms. References Alshammari, M. M. (2011). The use of the mother tongue in Saudi EFL classrooms. Journal of International Education Research, 7(4), 95-102 Behera, A. K. (2012). Code switching and some of Its factors. Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary, 1(2), 82-86 Bista, K. (2010). Factors of code switching among bilingual English students in the university classroom: A Survey. English for Specific Purposes World, 29 (9), 1-19 Bullock, B. E., & Toribio, A, J.,. (2009). The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-switching. Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics ISBN: 9780511507199 Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ibrahim, E. H. E., Shah, M. I. A., & Armi, N. T., (2013). Code-Switching in English as a foreign language classroom: Teachers’ attitudes. English Language Teaching, 6(5), 139-150 Jenkins, S. (2010). Monolingualism: an uncongenial policy for Saudi Arabia’s low-level learners. ELT Journal, 64(4), 459-461 doi:10.1093/elt/ccq014 Moghadam, S. H., Samad, A. A., & Shahraki, E. R. (2012). Code switching as a medium of instruction in an EFL classroom. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2 (11), 2219-2225 doi:10.4304/tpls.2.11.2219-2225 Mujiono, Poedjosoedarmo, S., Subroto, E., and Wiratno, T., (2013).Code Switching in English as Foreign Language Instruction Practiced by the English Lecturers at Universities, International Journal of Linguistics, 5 (2), 46-65 Nannapaneni Siva Kumar, M.A., M.B.A., & Narendra, M. (2012). A study of code switching in relation to ESL. Language in India, 12, 57-63 Sampson, A. (2012). Learner code-switching versus English only. ELT Journal, 66(3), 293-303 doi:10.1093/elt/ccr067 Saxena, M. (2009). Construction & deconstruction of linguistic otherness: Conflict & cooperative code-switching in (English/) bilingual classrooms, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 8(2), 168-187 http://education.waikato.ac.nz/research/files/etpc/files/2009v8n2art8.pdf Sert, O. (2006). The factors of code switching in ELT classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal. Retried from: from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Sert-CodeSwitching.html. Skiba, R. (1997). Code Switching as a countenance of language interference. The Internet TESL Journal, III(10) Retrieved from http://www.aitech.ac.jp/_itselj/. Then, D, Ch., and Ting,S. (2011). Code-switching in English and science classrooms: more than translation. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(4), 299-323