Principles Of Management
Henry Fayol and Fredrick Taylor and their principles of management
Henry Fayol is called the father of modern management as he was the first pioneer to give out the six primary functions of management and fourteen principles of management which are followed
by most of the organizations till date. According to him the six functions of management are forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and monitoring. In order to bring success in the organization, there must be planning about the target of what must be achieved in the future. Following this planning, the resources must be organized in such a way that it takes the organization in the way of the planned path, along this path the commanding of the human employees and coordinating the physical and human resources must be handled efficiently. Monitoring the activities and production process is also considered useful for review and feedback. (Weihrich and Koontz, 1994)
Fredrick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management as he was the one who coined the name of scientific management, it is also known as Taylorism which studies the workflows between the various levels of the organization. As Taylor was an engineer in a steel plant and grew up from there, he applied the engineering and scientific processes to management. He stressed the need for clearly defining the functions of individual workers and the groups. He stresses the need for economic efficiency through increase in labor productivity.
Fayol laid down the fourteen principles of management and they are discussed in brief here:
- In the principle of ‘division of labor’ Fayol stressed the importance the specialization of work which was necessary to increase production and its quality.
- Authority and Responsibility: In this principle he emphasizes the need for authority for the managers to give directions and instructions to the workers. And with the role of authority comes the need for being responsible.
- In his principle of discipline, he stresses the need for respect and obedience from the workers to the senior staff,
- He stresses the need for the workers to receive command and orders from only superior. This will prevent them from getting confused.
- Unity of direction which implies the group must have the same objective and directions must be the same for the group.
- He advocated the subordination of interests of the individual worker to the general interests of the group or the organization.
- He also talks about the fact that all the employees must receive fair price for their service as remuneration.
- He emphasizes the need for the flow of decisions to be taken at the top and to flow to the bottom known as top-bottom approach.
- He also stresses the establishing of the fomal chain of command that has to run from top to bottom.
- He firmly asserts the need for order that is each resource whether it is physical or human must have a place and it must remain there.
- There must be equity among the workers and they must be treated with kindness and justice.
- There must also be stability in tenure for workers and they have to feel safe about their employment in order to put in their best efforts.
- Initiative of the workers to work with zeal and energy is required in the all the efforts of their organization and
- He also emphasized the need for harmony and unity among the workers of the organization, without which there cannot be proper organizing.
As Taylor was the proponent of scientific management in which he propagates the need for scientific management is to achieve the maximum prosperity for each employer that is coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee. For this to be achieved changes in the mindset and attitudes of both the employee and the employer must be directed towards that of work which is essential for the maximum prosperity for both the stakeholders –the employee and the employer. (Heames and Breland, 2010)
The four principles of management that has been put out by Taylor is as follows:
- Development of a scientific method in the creation and assigning of tasks to the workers and eliminate the rule of thumb method.
- He insisted the need for actively select, develop and train the workforce that will increase the labor productivity and increase efficiency. He highlighted the importance of matching the job tasks to the right worker. He stressed the need for the management to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each worker before the allocation and training of the right job to the right
- He stressed the need for detailed instruction to be given to the employees and supervise each of the workers by allocating and organizing them into the scientific methods of production. The new scientific methods of production must be clearer to the workers before they can put in their best efforts. The more they understood the process of production, the better will they cooperate and their resistance will deteriorate.
- Taylor also stressed the need for division of work and the interdependence of the workers and the management. That both should work interdependently for the maximum prosperity of each other. If they feel that they are totally dependant on each other, then natural cooperation will follow.
Compare and Contrast: Henry Fayol’s theory to that of Fredrick Taylor
Comparing Henry Fayol and Fredrick Taylor, we can say that while Fayol was concerned about the organization as a whole, Taylor was concerned about the workers and their interdependence with the top management. The focus of Fayol was to improve overall administration with the fourteen principles he had suggested whereas the focus of Taylor had been to improving work productivity with standardizing and division of labor. In general Fayol was the practitioner who advocated what he practiced at the organization whereas Taylor conducted time and motion tests and experiments with the equipments and workers and found out that each worker will put in his best efforts for an extra income he could earn from this extra effort. (Berdayes, 2002)
While Fayols principles were based on his personal experiences that led to universal truths, Taylor based his principles on the observations and experiments he conducted.
The works and management theories of both Taylor and Fayol are complementary to each other.
Many studies have made a comparison between both the pioneers of management studies. In both of their theories, we can find that they stressed the need for management of resources, specifically the personnel as the key factor for the success of the organization. Both of them use scientific approach to the theorizing of management of resources. While Fayol used his personal experiences, Taylor used his experiments to theorize on the same. (Samson and Daft, 2012)
- Both the theories stressed the need for division of labor and specialization of labor that will lead to increase in productivity.
- Conceptualizing the organization as a whole has been emphasized by both the theories (while Fayol divided the functions of management into functional and conceptual unity, Taylor emphasizes the concept of work processes and coordination between the employer and the employees.
- Both of them stressed the importance of specialization of work that can be achieved through division of labor and proper training of workers in their functional roles. Their theories stressed the need for encouragement and motivation of workers not only through remuneration but also through helping and encouraging them and removing the obstacles and barriers in their path to work efficiently.
- Both of them identified the fact that proper remuneration systems for the workers can improve their productivity and efficiency in the organization.
Contrasting between the two theories of management, while Fayol’s principles flow from top to bottom, Taylor recognized the need to mutual interdependence between the employer and the employees. Fayol’s flow of management was from top to bottom as he was a top manager and was in a better place to observe and personally experience the role and difficulties of a manager, but Taylor’s flow of management was from bottom to top direction which was mainly due to his position of being a consultant. While Fayol concerned his theories in the management of the organization as a whole and to improve it, Taylor was more concerned with the management of the job and work specialization. (Williams and Anderson, 1991) As to this regard, Fayol’s principles of management have a wide scope in its application to organizations even in the present day world, than that of Taylor.