ІІ.4.3.2. Potentiometry-ion Selective Electrode:

Potentiometry-ion Selective ElectrodeIon-selective electrode is one of the miniaturized analytical devices used for determining specific analytes or complex ions in a sample [266]. According to Durst [267], potentiometry-ion sensors must have ion-selective membrane that allows some ions to pass across it unlike others. Ion-selective electrode functions based on selective diffusion process that only allows movement of ions from one phase to other across the membrane due to potential difference. Therefore, it must possess parameters such as selectivity, electrode slope and linear response range, to detection limit and response time. Once the electrode is placed inside a test solution, it detects the flow of ions from a phase with high to low concentration across the membrane.  Flow of  ions determines the electric potential that opposes further ionic movement, the point at which equilibrium state prevails  since  similar potential exist across the membrane where no further ionic  movement takes place.

There is sufficient evidence to support the critical role of ion-selective sensors in quantitative determination of electro active medicinal material [268-271].  Novel Potentiometric sensors have widely been used in analyzing different alkaloids, including berberine and cocaine, to cysteine heroin and codeine, to ethaverine as well as nicotine. According to Watanabe et al [272], there are improved membrane selective electrode for cocaine that uses ion-exchanger of sodium tetrakis [3, 5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl] borate and solvent mediator of tetrakis (2-ethylhexyl) pyromellitate (TEHPY).

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