Organizational behavior is the study or the assessment of the individual behavior within the organization. In general terms, it is known as the interface between the organization and the individual behavior. In this report, “Organizational Behavior” the organization that has been selected is “Sainsbury”. The purpose of the study is to explain the different factors that support in influencing the behavior of the organization as well as the individuals within the organization. In this report, the content and process theories of motivation will be evaluated to justify how they help in ensuring the achievement of goals and objectives. It is important for an organization to organize its employees in teams and groups that ensures better performance. The different concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior will be applied to the organization to assess the influence of them. The study will be achieved through a strong appreciation of performing in a team in order to have a wide knowledge regarding the individuals and organizational behavior.
Sainsbury is a British based largest chain of supermarkets having a share of 16.9% of the supermarket sector. John James Sainsbury established it in 1869 and since then, the organization is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom. The organization became a pioneer in the manufacturing of its own products and services; its purpose was to manufacture products that matched with the quality of nationally branded goods but at a cheap rate in order to make it affordable for all levels of consumers.
Analyse how an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance.
In organisational context, it has been seen that people have conflicted between the balance of culture, power and politics. The combination of these issues has spilled over in the workplace. The organisation’s culture, power and politics influence every operation in the workplace. The organisational culture is about having a common set of understandings and assumptions the members share altogether. Influence of culture is a concept of research that seems to give a certain level of ambiguity in the context of assessing its effectiveness on change variables in an organisation. Organisational culture is largely dominated by the political interactions among the workforce. The use of power in the workplace is the ability of a person of influencing other staff. According to French and Raven, a manager takes power from five sources. They are Reward, Coercive, Legitimate, Referent and Expert Power (Karkoulian and Osman, 2014).Some managers have taken advantage of this issue by exhibiting domination and bluffing in the workplace. If personnel of higher authority succeed in bluffing, the effect of it seemed to be same as possessing the formal power. The underlying reason for this is the subjective factors of power that is ethical and moral.
The table below is prepared on analysing the influence of culture, power and politics affecting the individuals and team’s behaviour and performances:
Table 1: Positive and negative influence of culture, politics and power in organisational behaviours
(Source: Created by the Learner)
M1. Critically analyse how the culture, politics and power of an organization can influence individual and team behaviour and performance.
The culture, politics and power being associated with an organization always have an effect upon individual and team behaviour and performance (Argyris, 2017).Four kinds of cultures are prevalent in an organization, which is based upon the role, task, power and person involved within the precincts of the organization. Generally argued, the culture inside the organisation helps to build up diversity and builds up many ideas that were not available before. It also increases the capacity of the company to communicate with different kind of people and understand the general taste and preference of these people inside a market. However, an increase in cultural diversity also increases some problems for the company, especially that are related to the religion and the traditional cultures of the employees. An organization and its employees regarding the differences in culture, which exist in organization, require certain awareness. According to the culture theory by Professor Geert Hofstede, there are six dimensions or aspects of culture and Hofstede defined culture as a proper coordinated programming of the human mind thereby differentiating a certain group of people with another group. Globalisation and innovation in technology has helped to create organizations and also helped people to contribute for the organization. According to Senge (2014), it is often seen that power has been limited to the decisions of the managers and supervisors and therefore these people are only responsible for taking the primary decisions of the company and not the petty or secondary ones. Therefore, it becomes hard for the managers and supervisors to bring on new ideas and innovations in the operations whenever needed and these people will have to contact the superiors for any changes in the organisation. Without these privileges, these people fail to do their work properly and cannot bring about changes, which are needed at those points. Politics in an organization has negative impacts, as the individuals are involved in mudslinging and non-cooperating with others thereby the productivity and the good name of the organization is tarnished. Influence of power affects the individuals and the overall performance of the organization. Power when used positively motivates the employees and when it is used negatively it damages the brand name and the workplace atmosphere.
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There are generally two types of theories concerning motivation i.e. process theories and content theories(Huczynski et al., 2013). The content theories explain the specifics of what motivates or boost an individual in an organization whereas process theories concerns on how the human behaviour is motivated. Both the theories of motivation play a huge impact on the practice and policy of the management. The content theories are sometimes referred to as the needs theories as it explains the specific requirements of the individuals. Some of the main content theories are Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s hygiene theory and many more. The main process theories are Skinner’s Reinforcement theory, Equity theory and many more. A single theory of motivation cannot explain and elaborate all the aspects regarding individual’s motives and lack of motives. Each of these motivational theories contributes as the basis for the development of motivation techniques. Sainsbury aims to provide its employees with the suitable working environment and various opportunities for the development of their skills and value.
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – Each individual has a hierarchy of requirements that ranges in different levels. The theory states that an individual does not sense a higher requirement until the fulfilment of the current requirements. This theory is portrayed and explained via a pyramid diagram with each level consisting a certain class of individual requirements. Maslow’s theory consists of five levels of requirements that need to be satisfied and as soon as a particular level is satisfied, the organization is motivated to satisfy the next level in the hierarchy. It can be said that Sainsbury follows and satisfies all the individual requirements. The organization satisfies the psychological requirements of the individuals by providing them with better salary and incentives. The safety needs includes a secure source of income, health and well-being. If the physiological requirements are well satisfied, the next requirements are the safety needs(Block, 2011).
The organization offers its employees with various medical benefits and shelter. The employees of Sainsbury perform as a team and it is the responsibility of the organization to ensure that a friendly and healthy environment is created for the working employees(Einstein et al., 2016). The organization keeps an assessment of the individual performances to offer them with incentives and promotions. The five different levels have been categorized into two sub parts such as deficiency needs and growth requirements. The most basic level of deficiency needs is required to be fulfilled by the organization to ensure the development of growth needs in the individual.
Figure 2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
(Source: Cherry, 2011)
- McClelland’s Theory– This theory states the three motivating factors relatively based on Maslow’s theory of needs. The motivating factors depend variedly on the culture and are permanent. The three motivators are achievement, affiliation and power. The first motivator refers to the need to achieve and demonstrate competence. It pertains to an individual’s requirements for mastering of skills and values and success. The internal action drivers influence this specific need. The low motivation sense for achievement of goals concludes that individuals want to reduce the risk of failure(Royle and Hall, 2012). The individuals with a high need for achievement requires feedbacks on their achievements and often seek challenges and high degrees of independence.
It is important for the employees of an organization to possess the achievement motivator in order to provide the best efforts required at the workplace to ensure achievement of targeted goals. The second motivator refers to the need for love, belonging and relatedness. The individuals concerned during the second motivator have a strong requirement for friendships and relatedness. Sainsbury focuses that the working individuals develop a sense of affiliation with the other employees to ensure better communication. Effective communication plays a big role in the achievement of goals and objectives. The third motivator authority refers to the need to control the work of other employees or to influence it. There is a strong need to lead and to succeed in their concepts and ideas. This theory overall, states that there is a strong requirement for achievement which develops an individual in becoming the best leader(Dittman and Bunton, 2012).
The process theories of motivation are as follows:
- Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory – The reinforcement theory states that behaviour is generally influenced or formed by consequences and action such as appreciation, rewards and appraisal. For instance, if an employee of Sainsbury gets a positive and rewarding feedback for the performed tasks, this reinforcement encourages and motivates the performance of the behaviour to recur(Skinner, 2014). If a leader does not precisely explains the expectation, then the positive reinforcement’s progresses the behaviour closer to the expectations. The anticipated reinforcement of the required behaviour is achieved by the positive reinforcement. According to the reinforcement theory, positive reinforcement is a perfect motivational technique that helps in explaining the employees the benefits of achieving their goals and objectives. Sainsbury applies the reinforcement in the workplace on a partial or weekly reinforcement schedule, usually when the reward is not provided for every response and action. This theory is included in various theories of motivation and the rewards must satisfy the requirements of every individual employee and expectations.
- Vroom’s Expectancy Theory – The expectancy theory focuses on the process and content of motivation and it integrates the requirements and equity. The purpose of this theory is to explain how the individual selects from the available actions. According to the perception of this theory, motivation evolves from the belief that decisions will have their desired results. The motivation to engage an individual in an action is determined by the three factors such as expectancy, instrumentality and valence (Parijat and Bagga, 2014). The appraisal of expectancy factor is developed based on self-efficacy and particular self-rated capabilities. The second factor refers to the individual’s belief that there is an existing connection between the action and the specified goals. The appraisal of this factor is pillared on the accuracy and efficiency of marking. Valence refers to the extent to which an individual values the appreciation or the reward, the outcome of success. According to the perception of Vroom, motivation is equal to the multiplication of the three factors. If any one of the factor is zero in effort, then it is general that motivation result will be equal to zero as well.
Figure 3: Vroom’s Expectancy theory
(Source: Abadi et al., 2011)
M2. Critically evaluate how to influence the behaviour of others through the effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts and models.
The motivation in an organization can be categorised into two kind’s namely extrinsic and intrinsic motivation (Blau, 2017).Intrinsic motivation makes an individual work with pleasure whereas extrinsic motivation makes an individual work forcefully in order to avoid punishment. Behavioural motivational theories, concepts and models have an impact upon the behaviour of others. The Equity theory based on J. Stacy Adams’ work, Expectancy theory by Vroom, Reinforcement theory and the goal-setting theory are some of the motivational theories applied for finding out how others behaviours are influenced. According to the Equity theory, the employees have an expectation of getting a salary according to the amount of hard work they are giving. The employees should be treated equally so that they do not feel unwanted in an organization. Expectancy theory brings about an expectation or hope among employees that they will be recognized and rewarded for their work. The reinforcement theory and the goal-setting theory also have positive effect on the individuals. The motivational theory in an organization helps in developing the human resources of an organization and makes the organization prosper.
D1. Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enables teams and organisations to succeed providing justified recommendations.
Over ages, mankind has struggled when they had to balance in between culture, politics, power and motivation. The organizational culture, politics, power and motivation have an effect on the day to day functioning and helps to create a perfect ambience in the organization (Senge, 2014). Power when executed positively, helps the employees to perform well which in turn uplifts the positive name of the organisation. The teams should be recognised and united within an organization so that each individual has a feel good factor regarding being a part of the organization. An organisation needs to have a proper culture in place in order to inspire other individuals to work.For instance if a manager behaves properly with his subordinates and does not indulge in any politics within the organization then the organization is bound to succeed.
The teams hold an important place in the professional and personal lives. In the field of business, there are project teams, quality teams and product teams. Each of the team is different in nature and their roles differ. Not every group is a team and not every team is effective. An effective team can perform effectively if it comprises of the following six factors such as purpose, right individuals, and organizational support, focused coaching and have a clear knowledge of the norms of conduct. In order for becoming an effective team, a group must have established clear goals and objectives(Wheelan, 2014). Secondly, it requires possessing a results-driven structure. Thirdly, an effective team should comprise of the righteous competent team members. The team should ensure that the members have efficient knowledge, education and training skills.
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An effective team or group possess some of the common characteristics that contribute in enhancing the growth and development of the team, which in return, leads to higher levels of success by improving the overall performance of the organization, including the development of the products and quality of the services. Sainsbury has utilized the process that drives the satisfaction levels of the consumers and as a result, the demands of the consumers increase. When a group performs well together, the members can focus on their primary goals of solving the issues and conflicts. Although, whenever there are unresolved conflicts and issues between the members the team results are poorly rated and judged. The potential capabilities of an effective team are unlimited and it can increase the overall performance of the organization. The concept of team building should be implemented in such a way that it should speed up and facilitate the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. Sainsbury should always be focused on encouraging their employees to share the concept of team building to increase the organizational success on a long-term basis.
M3. Analyse relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation.
Teamwork is an important aspect of a successful organisation. A Team is made up of two or more people who work in a supportive manner to achieve a common objective. There are various types of team’s namely functional teams, virtual teams, and cross-functional teams. A group is different from a team as it involves many individuals who work together in order to achieve a common goal in an organization. A single individual heads a group whereas a team consists of more than one head (Fayol , 2016). The group members are independent in nature whereas the team members do not have to depend upon others. The group development must follow six stages. According to Tuckman’s Development Model, group development occurs in four stages such as forming, storming, norming and performing or adjourning. Teams with high efficiency make decisions by taking the opinions of all the individuals concerned within a team. Thus, proper team works upon the ideas of each other and by trusting each other’s ability and credentials in order to develop dynamic cooperation in the organization. project management assignment help
LO4 Apply concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior to a given business situation
1-Path gaol theory of leadership
The path-goal theory will be used as this describes the leader style and behaviour, which is important to understand the work environment, and will enable the employees of the company to achieve the goal. It will also help to increase empowerment motivation and satisfaction of the employees, which will affect the productivity positively. Fundamentally, there are a couple of concepts in every organisation and it depends on the nature of the organisation as well as the kinds of people who work in it and the ones with whom the company deals with. This is the part of the ideas and perspectives of the people that are concerned with different aspects with the company and for Sainsbury, it works the same way and the stakeholders of the company may have different ideas at different points of time. A huge diversity and democratic factors affect the organisations such as marital status, income, personality requirements, gender, age, and experience. It is important for the company to understand the requirements of those people who have different perceptions and ideas in their work.
2- Social capital theory
Social capital theory was devised to understand the participation of the stakeholders within the organisation, which has helped to influence their lives in a number of ways. Therefore, this theory will help the companies to understand the ideas and perceptions of the employees within the company and will tend to understand the aspects of networks, reciprocity, participation, and proactively. It is important for the managers and leaders of the company to understand their requirements and motivate them so that they can achieve the common goal of the company (Sosa and McGrath, 2013). Motivation is one of the factors that can affect the performance of the companies and it is important for the managers and leaders of the company to provide opportunities to the Employees so that they can contribute their ideas and talents easily. It is evident that a person is always different from another in terms of their ideas and capacity and that is why the philosophy and principles of these people differ.
There are basically three most commonly used contingency plans. These contingency plans have been devided by the scolars as per their methods and these techniques help the organizations to deal with diffucilt situations. The main objective of the contingency plan is to provide the organization a safe and secure environment during the time of an emergency. The three most popular contingency methods are contingency theory of leadership, contingency theory of management, and the contingency theory of situational approach. It is important for the company to be enthusiastic so that the managers and the leaders of the company can provide the Employees with opportunities and help them to provide their ideas for the betterment of the company. It is important for the company to treat everybody in the organisation equally and understand the emotions of these people so that the people can feel respected in the organisation they work in.
Sainsbury’s organizational structure is hierarchical due to its various series of different levels of individuals and the level above controls each level relatively. It is the responsibility of the level above to control and assess the various other levels. Some basic concepts of organizational behaviour are not specific but still these concepts guide the development of the organization(Burrell and Morgan, 2017). There are some types of philosophical concepts in the organizational behaviour. The concept is generally based on two main elements that are as follows:
Nature of people – A nature of an individual is the basic qualities or the characteristics that personifies an individual. Some of the main factors that affect the nature of the individuals have been elaborated below as follows:
- Individual differences – It refers to the managerial approach towards each individual employee, i.e. one-on-side approach. This factors states that every individual is different from others in its own way. The notion of individual differences originates from psychology. For example: A departmental manager of Sainsbury thinks that a particular employee is spoiling the environment by too much communication with its various other employees. The employee thinks that communication is the only way of making new friends and working calmly. This example concludes that the manager and the respective employee both have different opinion and perceptions about the same thing.
- Motivated behaviour – It refers to the behaviour evolved or implanted by some motivation from an individual, groups or high-skilled leaders. In order to satisfy the different requirements, an individual needs to perform better in the organization. Some motivations are important to enrich the quality and performance of the work. In an organization, there are usually two types of motivation: Positive motivation and negative motivation. The first type i.e. positive motivation encourages individual employee by changing their behaviour or achieving a specified tasks and goals by providing them with special benefits and rewards. Negative motivation refers to forcing or making the individuals to change their behaviour. The employees are required to be motivated in order to extract the best results that ensure the achievement of organizational goals and objectives(Suppiah and Singh Sandhu, 2011).
- Nature of the organization – The nature of the organization states the motive of the company. The primary motive of Sainsbury is to provide effective and satisfactory customer service by offering high quality products and services at a fair rate. Sainsbury’s personality is defined by its culture and layout of its various stores.
- Social system–Sainsbury socializes with the other companies, their potential consumers and external world in order to gain knowledge about their own social roles and status. Their organizational behavior is generally influenced by their effective teams and as well as individual drives. Social system is of two type’s i.e. formal and informal system. A formal social system is the group or team created by individuals performing together in an organization. An informal social system refers to the group of individuals that comprises of members socializing with others freely and chilling. Sainsbury follows a formal social system due to its high-skilled employees and brand image.
- Ethics – Ethics are referred to as the moral principles of an individual, team and organization. In order to attract and retain the valuable employees, ethical treatment is mandatory and some moral standards and values are required to be set. Many of the SME’s and organizations are establishing code of ethics training reward for proper and effective ethical behavior. Sainsbury keeps an assessed report and track of performing collaboratively with its numerous suppliers(Furnham, 2012). The core value of Sainsbury “Sourcing with Integrity” includes the commitment of the firm to source its various key materials sustainably to set standards.
There are multiple theories regarding the management which aims at improving the collective effort of the employees. The collective effort of the employees and the direction of the effort is considered as the organizational behaviour. However, there are three theories related to the organizational behaviour, which is being used by the multinational organizations. These theories are the Taylor’s scientific management theory, Weber’s bureaucratic approach, and Fayol’s principles of management.
Scientific management theory helps to analyse and synthesise the workflows within the organisation which organ helps to increase economic efficiency between the stakeholders especially the employees and focus on the productivity of labour within the organisation. It also helps to apply scientific approaches to perform the above tasks properly and this theory is famous for using engineering of processes and management techniques, which helps this to increase the overall efficiency and productivity of the company (Huczynski et al., 2013). Frederick Winslow Taylor created this theory and this person focuses on several aspects like the view of workers, market economics, trade unions, employment, planned economics, and labour reactions. With the help of this theory, scientific management is used by working with the ‘rule of thumb’ understanding the common habit and sense of the people and scientific methods are used to determine and study the work in the most efficient way. It helps to assign workers to jobs and matches the work based on the motivation and capability of the workers. According to the theory, the company will also have to focus on the performance of the workers and supervise or instruct them to make their work more efficient (Furnham, 2012).
Weber has devised the Weber’s bureaucratic approach in the year 1947, which had focused on a broader segment considering the organisation and basing on the concept of formal organisation and principles. According to the theory, there are five principles of formal organisation, which starts with the first aspect of the structure. According to this theory, the structure in the organisation is very important and it should be arranged according to hierarchy and superiority among the workers and establish responsibilities and authority according to their position (Burrell and Morgan, 2017). Specialisation is also an important part of the organisation as this helps to distinguish the tasks on a functional basis and separate them according to specialisation for which there should be a separate chain of command and a set of managers to supervise the actions. Predictability and stability is also an important part of the organisation and it helps the companies to operate according to specially set procedures and methods that are made up of a certain set of rules and regulations based on existing conditions of the organisation. Rationality is also important as it deals with the recruitment and the selection of people, and according to the theory that should be no impartiality during the recruitment processes (Blau, 2017). Finally, democracy is also responsible for bringing on authority and responsibility among the labours and this is why these people should be provided with designations and not be recognised through persons. link for you dissertation writing services
Fayol’s 14 principles of management are associated with 14 principles which are divided into authority, a division of work, discipline, unity of direction, unity of command, remuneration, subordination of individual interest to the general interest, scalar chain, centralisation, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, Esprit de Corps, and initiatives.
Organizational behaviour is based on a few basic concepts, which are associated with the nature of people and how organizations work. There are certain types of philosophical behaviour that influences OB in both positive and negative way. Every individual is different and has his or her own likes and dislikes. Therefore, each individual should be utilised properly by an organisation. For a particular subject or thing, the idea or the perception of an individual differs from each other and this depends upon each individual’s past experiences, surroundings and other demographic factors. An employee who is an individual also has a private life, which is also being thought about by him or her. This can affect the focus of the certain individual and that can reduce the quality of his or her work in the organization. An individual wants him or herself to be treated well and does not want to get into a system where he or she seems to be working just for money.
D2. Critically analyse and evaluate the relevance of team development theories in context of organisational behaviour concepts and philosophies that influence behaviour in the work place.
The Tuckman’s teamwork theory is based on four phases of work and it includes the four stages named forming, storming, norming, and performing. Forming is the initial stage where the team members find their place within the team and sorts out the task communicating between each other. Storming is a second phase where the people in the team start to understand their value and see themselves as a part of the team. This is where the people can challenge each other and suggest changes in the type of work and it is generally done to increase focus on the task. Norming is the third place where the team members come together to work for a primary goal and clarify the doubts and the ways in which the work is to be done (Argyris, 2017). Finally arrives the performing stage, where the team members focus on the task and combined synergies and Tim relationships to effectively work together. This theory will help the company to understand the importance of teamwork and the way in which the members of the team can perform the task hassle-free. looking for assignment writing service
Sainsbury socialises with other corporations, to gain expertise about their social roles and status. Their organisational behaviour is usually influenced by using their effective teams and as well as person drives. Ethics are referred to as the ethical ideas of an person, team and employer. To attract and maintain precious employees, ethical remedy is obligatory, and a few moral requirements and values are required to be set. Some of the SME’s and corporations are setting up the code of ethics education praise for proper and effective moral behaviour (Block, 2011).
The Path goal theory is a leadership theory, which was founded in the 1970s by Americans Robert J. House and Terence R. Mitchell. In the above-mentioned theory, it is assumed that a leader supports his employees and compensates for their failures or unsuccessful work. The elements of this particular theory, which includes tasks matches with that of situational leadership. Guidance is given to the employees by the leaders to achieve their goals(Northouse, 2018). The social capital theory involves some resources, which facilitate coordinated social action. According to the path goal theory, leaders have to be flexible enough in order to get the maximum benefits from their employees in terms of hard work.
The field of organizational behaviour can be both exciting and complex. Various concepts and variables affects the interactions described, and when accumulated together these factors provide with various opportunities to enhance the personal and organizational effectiveness. In this, report “Organizational Behaviour” with reference to the organization “Sainsbury”, an overview of organizational behaviour has been elaborated. It has been analysed in this report that how culture, politics and power influence the behaviours of individuals. The various content and process theories of motivation have been evaluated to justify how they enable in achievement of goals and objectives. Organizational behaviour includes the core topics of motivations, behaviour, interpersonal communication and many more. In this report, the different concepts and philosophies of organizational behaviour has been applied to the organization. visit for Accounting assignment help
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