Motivational Theories in The Workplace-Btechnd

Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace

The study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way.
The basic underlying question is ‘Why do people do what they do?’ In general terms, motivation
can be described as the direction and persistence of action. It is concerned with why
people choose a particular course of action in preference to others, and why they continue
with a chosen action, often over a long period and in the face of difficulties and problems (Laurie J. Mullins 2004)
This assignment will focus on two theories that applied to motivation.

1.Fredrick Herzberg Theory

2.Frederick Winslow Taylor

In 1911 the engineer Fredrick Taylor Published one of the earliest motivational theories.According to Taylor’s research, people worked purely for money.In the early years of the car assembly industry,work on the  production line was based on production quality and was repetitive.Workers were paid ‘piece rate’ that is, paid for every item produced.This approach of paying workers by results was good for business.The outcome was greater production but gave little opportunity,encouragement of  for employee to think for themselves or be creative in what they did.This limited people’s development and their use within the company.(Motivational theory in practice at Tesco)

Tesco’s  Employees has some similarity to Taylor’s theory of motivation.Tesco gives more than just simple pay increases.Tesco supports the lifestyles of the  employees through relevant benefits.

Every year Tesco invites its staff to take part in a staff satisfaction survey which gives staffs the opportunity to express their views on their aspect of a  job.The result from the survey helps Tesco make sure it is offering the right things to its staff to keep them motivated.

Some of the benefits includes:

A Pension scheme  which provides long-term benefits to the employee.

Carrer Break, this allow allows the staff to take a break either for a study or long term holiday between 6 months and 5 years away from work with the right of return when done with the break.

Lifestyle breaks are permitted,this offers between 4- 12 weeks off work and guarantees the job back at the end.

Employee is more motivated when their employer creates a good working environment where the  employee feels valued and being asked for their opinions.

Fredrick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

This theory based on : The factors that business could introduce to directly motivate employees to perform better.

The theory asks the question about how can people /employees be motivated. He said workers can be motivated by Hygiene factors and Motivator factors.

Herzberg showed that to truly motivate an employee an organisation needs to provide an  enabling environment.

Hygiene factors are on the need for a business to avoid unfavourable work environment. He said if this is lacking it may cause dissatisfaction with work.

In Motivator factors, he said an individual is authorised to think, behave, undertake action, control and make decision irrespective of the higher authority. (Brooks I.  2002)

Tesco employees have some similarity to Herzberg Motivational theory.Tesco aims to motivate its employees by paying attention to hygiene factors and by enabling satisfiers. Tesco motivates and empowers its employees by delegating responsibility and involving staff in decision making. Forums are held every year in which staff can be part of the discussions on pay rises.Tesco staff can influence what food goes onto its restaurant menus. .(Motivational theory in practice at Tesco)

In comparison,Taylor’s motivational theory  says the approach of paying workers by result was good for business, the outcome was greater production but gave little opportunity,encouragement or time the employee to think for themselves  or be creative in what they did.

By paying good wages,supporting the varied lifestyles of individual employees,inviting staff satisfaction survey Tesco was able to achieve its organisational goals in term of more productive.  Whereas Herzberg says workers could be motivated by two main factors which are Hygiene and Motivators factors.Tesco practice both  hygiene aspects as well as motivate their staff by appropriate and timely  communication,by delegating responsibility and involving staff in decision making. .(Motivational theory in practice at Tesco)

Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers

Motivation is a complex subject. For managers and aspiring managers with a willingness and desire to learn how to motivate subordinates . Managers use motivation in the workplace  to inspire people to work in order to produce the best results for business in the most efficient and effective manner. Managers should identify the needs and  ambitions of each individual, the outcomes each employee wants while recognising that people differ in their personalities and needs.   Managers should also  relate these characteristics to the nature of the tasks expected of those individuals and the roles they are to perform and give opportunities, for example, for them to seek both intrinsic rewards, such as achievement, affiliation. recognition, responsibility, and advancement.  Managers should clarify for individuals the potential outcomes they might achieve for their efforts, especially if these are positive, desirable, realistic and possible to achieve.  Managers should carefully examine their reward systems, company policies, supervision styles and so forth, to avoid potential sources of demotivation.  Managers should make sure that the reward system is equitable.  Managers should attempt to forge a balance between encouraging an appropriate level and type of rivalry, which might stimulate employees, and avoid the negative aspects of the conflict.  Managers should recognise the motivational implications of change programmes and utilise skills of communication to moderate the adverse effects of changes to each individual’s psychological contract. Managers should consider motivation theory, and the work of those who have applied this to job design  when creating or changing individual or team tasks and roles.  (Brooks I 2002)

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