MOTIVATION AND TEAMWORK

INTRODUCTION

MINI LECTURE

Now that you have watched the mini-lecture, you can learn more in the Essential reading for this topic:

ESSENTIAL READINGS

Remember that all the Essential reading for this programme is provided for you. Click ‘next’ to go to the next page and start reading.

  1. J. Mullins and G. Christy, Management and organisational behaviour (Pearson, 2016; 11th edition)

Effective organisational performance is dependent upon human activity and the efforts of members of staff. The structure of the work organisation, styles of leadership and the design and content of jobs can have a significant effect on the attitude, motivation and satisfaction of staff. The manager needs to know how best to elicit the co-operation and motivation of staff, and direct their efforts to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation.

MOTIVATION AND TEAMWORKThe relationship between the organisation and its members is influenced by what motivates them to work and the rewards and fulfilment they derive from it. The more highly engaged and motivated the workforce, the more likely the success of the organisation in achieving its goals and objectives. Motivation is at the basis of all organisational activity.

The study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. The basic underlying question is ‘Why do people do what they do?’ In general terms, motivation can be described as the direction and persistence of action. It is concerned with why people choose a particular course of action in preference to others, and why they continue with a chosen action, often over a long period and in the face of difficulties and problems. 1

From a review of motivation theory, Mitchell identifies four common characteristics that underlie the definition of motivation:

  • Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique, and major theories of motivation allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated in one way or another.
  • Motivation is described, usually, as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the worker’s control, and behaviours that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended, are seen as choices of action.
  • Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are: (i) what gets people activated (arousal); and (ii) the force of an individual to engage in the desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour).
  • The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the behaviour itself and it is not performance. Motivation concerns action and the internal and external forces that influence a person’s choice of action.

On the basis of these characteristics, Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours’.2

A fuller definition from the Chartered Management Institute is:

Motivation is the creation of incentives and working environments that enable people to perform to the best of their ability. The aim of motivation is to engage people with the work they are doing in order to achieve the best possible outcomes for individuals and the organisation as a whole.3

People’s behaviour is determined by what motivates them. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation: The underlying concept of motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation. This concept gives rise to the basic motivational model, illustrated in Figure 7.1.

Performance  = function (ability × motivation)

Kreitner et al. suggest that although motivation is a necessary contributor to job performance, it is not the only one. Along with ability, motivation is also a combination of the level of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and emotions, and facilitating and inhibiting conditions, not under the individual’s control.4 However, what is clearly evident is that if the manager is to improve the work of the organisation, attention must be given to the level of motivation of its members. The manager must also encourage staff to direct their efforts (their driving force) towards the successful attainment of the goals and objectives of the organisation.

Needs and expectations at work

But what is this driving force and what do people really want from work? What are people’s needs and expectations and how do they influence behaviour and performance at work? Motivation is a complex subject, it is a very personal thing and it is influenced by many variables. For example, Farren reminds us of the twelve human needs that have been around since the beginning of recorded history: family, health and well-being, work/career, economic, learning, home/shelter, social relationships, spirituality, community, leisure, mobility and environment/safety: ‘Work and private life in the new millennium will continue to revolve around the 12 human needs.’5

Early writers, such as F. W. Taylor, believed in economic needs motivation. Workers would be motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages by working in the most efficient and productive way. The performance was limited by physiological fatigue. For Taylor, motivation was a comparatively simple issue what the workers wanted from their employers more than anything else was high wages. The ideas of F. W. Taylor and his rationaleconomic concept of motivation and subsequent approaches to motivation at work have fuelled the continuing debate about financial rewards as a motivator and their influence on productivity.

Money as a motivator

Where there is little pleasure in the work itself or the job offers little opportunity for career advancement, personal challenge or growth, many people may appear to be motivated primarily, if not exclusively, by money. Weaver suggests that for many hourly workers in the hospitality industry, such as dishwashing, waiting or housekeeping staff, the work does not change much among different companies and there is little attachment to a particular company. For such staff, Weaver proposes a ‘Theory M’ programme of motivation based on direct cash rewards for above-average performance. A percentage base is calculated from the average performance of workers on the staff.6

Different generations in the workforce are also likely to have contrasting sets of motivations. For example, baby-boomers may well be concerned primarily about security, paying their large mortgages or funding their retirement. Generation X may be concerned about the changing nature of the work organisation, their financial future and continuing job security for the rest of their working life. On the other hand, Generation Y may be more footloose, have less interest in or doubts about affording to buy their own home and be less concerned about security or a long-term career.

For the vast majority of people, money is clearly important and a motivator at work but to what extent and how important depends upon personal circumstances and other satisfactions they derive from work. Although pay may still make people tick, there are now a number of other important influences on motivation. For many people, the feeling of being recognised and valued appears more important than money in motivating them to stay in a particular job. Note also that money may seem important as symbolising successful task performance and goal achievement. (See achievement motivation below; see also the ultimatum game below.)

As Chamorro-Premuzic and Fagan point out, few management topics have attracted as much discussion as the relationship between money and motivation. It seems that money is not a great motivator at work, and under certain circumstances may even demotivate. Extrinsic incentives such as financial rewards may extinguish or crowd out intrinsic rewards such as engagement and job satisfaction. This finding has important implications for managers.

It suggests that before incentivising their employees with external rewards money, promotions or titles they must first work out to what degree the job or task is meaningful or interesting for employees. And just as money can compensate for drearier jobs, it may also dilute employees’ passion and joy in doing something that they love like the artist who is offended by questions about the price of his work.

The authors also report on evidence that suggests that people are far more sensitive to the loss of money than the gaining of money. A pay rise may not necessarily make people happy, but a pay cut will be sure to make them miserable.7

  • for example, the simple divisions into physiological and social motives or into extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
  • Extrinsic motivation is related to ‘tangible’ rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work. Such tangible rewards are often determined at the

Intrinsic motivation is related to ‘psychological’ rewards such as the opportunity to use one’s ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation, positive recognition and being treated in a caring and considerate manner. The psychological rewards are those that can usually be determined by the actions and behaviour of individual managers.8organisation level and maybe largely outside the control of individual managers.

According to Sauermann and Cohen, overall intrinsic motives, particularly the desire for the intellectual challenge, appear to benefit innovation more than extrinsic motives such as pay: ‘However, management also need to recognise that appealing to individuals’ motives can occasionally detract from organizational goals. For example, there are cases where individuals pursued research projects out of their own interest, against explicit policies of management.’9

However, according to Gratton, finding intrinsically motivating tasks is not easy.

Finding tasks and experiences that are intrinsically motivating sounds relatively straight -forward but in fact, it requires a heightened awareness of who we are. Without this emotional self-awareness, we have no capacity to judge whether the tasks available to us could be intrinsically motivating

  • . . Finding intrinsically motivating tasks also requires the companies of which we are members to communicate the tasks available and to encourage volunteering.10

Waller refers to the importance today of identity, and that work inevitably plays a key role in shaping identity. Waller questions how much of ourselves we put into our job.

According to Kets de Vries, the best-performing companies possess a set of values that creates the right conditions for high performance.

  • attachment/affiliation concerning the need for engagement and sharing, a feeling of community and a sense of belonging to the company; and
  • exploration/assertion concerning the ability to play and work, a sense of fun and enjoyment, the need for self-assertion and the ability to choose.1

MOTIVATION AND TEAMWORK

MINI LECTURE

Now that you have watched the mini-lecture, you can learn more in the Essential reading for this topic:

ESSENTIAL READINGS

Mullins, L.J. and G. Christy Management and organisational behaviour. (Harlow:

Pearson, 2016) 11th edition. Chapter 7 Work motivation and job satisfaction.

Remember that all the Essential reading for this programme is provided for you. Click ‘next’ to go to the next page and start reading

  • Topic 3 MOTIVATION AND TEAMWORK

MULLINS AND CHRISTY CHAPTER 7: WORK MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION

  1. J. Mullins and G. Christy, Management and organisational behaviour (Pearson, 2016; 11th edition)

Effective organisational performance is dependent upon human activity and the efforts of members of staff. The structure of the work organisation, styles of leadership and the design and content of jobs can have a significant effect on the attitude, motivation and satisfaction of staff. The manager needs to know how best to elicit the co-operation and motivation of staff, and direct their efforts to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation.

The sign of motivation

The more likely the success of the organisation in achieving its goals and objectives. Motivation is at the basis of all organisational activity.

The study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. The basic underlying question is ‘Why do people do what they do?’  It is concerned with why people choose a particular course of action in preference to others, and why they continue with a chosen action, often over a long period and in the face of difficulties and problems. 1

From a review of motivation theory, Mitchell identifies four common characteristics that underlie the definition of motivation:

  • Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon.
  • Motivation is multifaceted.   and (ii) the force of an individual to engage in the desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour).
  • The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the behaviour itself and it is not performance. Motivation concerns action and the internal and external forces that influence a person’s choice of action.

On the basis of these characteristics, Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behaviours’.2

A fuller definition from the Chartered Management Institute is:

Motivation is the creation of incentives and working environments that enable people to perform to the best of their ability. The aim of motivation is to engage people with the work they are doing in order to achieve the best possible outcomes for individuals and the organisation as a whole.3

The underlying concept of motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation. This concept gives rise to the basic motivational model, illustrated in Figure 7.1Underlying concept of motivation

Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation:

Performance  = function (ability × motivation)

Kreitner et al. suggest that although motivation is a necessary contributor to job performance, it is not the only one. Along with ability, motivation is also a combination of the level of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and emotions, and facilitating and inhibiting conditions, not under the individual’s control. The manager must also encourage staff to direct their efforts (their driving force) towards the successful attainment of the goals and objectives of the organisation.

Needs and expectations at work

But what is this driving force and what do people really want from work? What are people’s needs and expectations and how do they influence behaviour and performance at work? For example, Farren reminds us of the twelve human needs that have been around since the beginning of recorded history: family, health and well-being, work/career, economic, learning, home/shelter, social relationships, spirituality, community, leisure, mobility and environment/safety: ‘Work and private life in the new millennium will continue to revolve around the 12 human needs.’5

Early writers, such as F. W. Taylor, believed in economic needs motivation. The ideas of F. W. Taylor and his rationaleconomic concept of motivation and subsequent approaches to motivation at work have fuelled the continuing debate about financial rewards as a motivator and their influence on productivity.

  • Topic 3 MOTIVATION AND TEAMWORK

Weaver suggests that for many hourly workers in the hospitality industry, such as dishwashing, waiting or housekeeping staff, the work does not change much among different companies and there is little attachment to a particular company. For such staff, Weaver proposes a ‘Theory M’ programme of motivation based on direct cash rewards for above-average performance. Different generations in the workforce are also likely to have contrasting sets of motivations. For example, baby-boomers may well be concerned primarily about security, paying their large mortgages or funding their retirement. Generation X may be concerned about the changing nature of the work organisation, their financial future and continuing job security for the rest of their working life. On the other hand, Generation Y may be more footloose, have less interest in or doubts about affording to buy their own home and be less concerned about security or a long-term career.

For the vast majority of people, money is clearly important and a motivator at work but to what extent and how important depends upon personal circumstances and other satisfactions they derive from work. Although pay may still make people tick, there are now a number of other important influences on motivation.  (See achievement motivation below; see also the ultimatum game below.)

As Chamorro-Premuzic and Fagan point out, few management topics have attracted as much discussion as the relationship between money and motivation. It seems that money is not a great motivator at work, and under certain circumstances may even demotivate. Extrinsic incentives such as financial rewards may extinguish or crowd out intrinsic rewards such as engagement and job satisfaction. This finding has important implications for managers.

It suggests that before incentivising their employees with external rewards money, promotions or titles they must first work out to what degree the job or task is meaningful or interesting for employees.

The authors also report on evidence that suggests that people are far more sensitive to the loss of money than the gaining of money.

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

  • for example, the simple divisions into physiological and social motives or into extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.
  • Extrinsic motivation is related to ‘tangible’ rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work. organisation level and maybe largely outside the control of individual managers.

According to Sauermann and Cohen, overall intrinsic motives, particularly the desire for the intellectual challenge, appear to benefit innovation more than extrinsic motives such as pay: ‘However, management also need to recognise that appealing to individuals’ motives can occasionally detract from organizational goals. For example, there are cases where individuals pursued research projects out of their own interest, against explicit policies of management.’9

Broader intrinsic motivation

Finding tasks and experiences that are intrinsically motivating sounds relatively straight -forward but in fact, it requires a heightened awareness of who we are. Without this emotional self-awareness, we have no capacity to judge whether the tasks available to us could be intrinsically motivating

  • . . Finding intrinsically motivating tasks also requires the companies of which we are members to communicate the tasks available and to encourage volunteering.10

Waller refers to the importance today of identity, and that work inevitably plays a key role in shaping identity. Waller questions how much of ourselves we put into our job.

According to Kets de Vries, the best-performing companies possess a set of values that creates the right conditions for high performance.

  • attachment/affiliation concerning the need for engagement and sharing, a feeling of community and a sense of belonging to the company; an
  • exploration/assertion concerning the ability to play and work, a sense of fun and enjoyment, the need for self-assertion and the ability to choose.12

 

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