This is a solution of Literature Review Assignment part 4 in which we discuss the impulse buying behaviour can have both short-term and long-term consequences.

The Process Theory of Buyer Behaviour

Literature Review Assignment part 4

The process theory tries to explain what individuals would do theoretically and practically if they were assumed to be rational economic actors (Banerjee &Saha, 2012). Based on the process theory, the buyer decisions can be made from both opportunistic and self-defensive perspectives reliant on the consumer’s ultimate gains. For example, customers will take advantage of bulk purchases to get discounts. However, the intention of utilising the bulk purchasing can lead to impulsive buying because one will end up buying more products than budgeted due to the discount’s attractiveness (Bashar & Ahmed, 2012). The opportunistic perspective of the buyer behaviour can also be motivated by the use of credit card offers. According to Dawson & Kim (2010), business environment are formulating creative strategies such as the use of credit card offers to encourage consumers to make extra purchases. When using credit cards, consumers will make as many purchases as they can and pay for the products at a future date (Floh&Madlberger, 2013). The use of credit card offers is tremendously growing due to the parallel growth of other credit card usages such as bank overdrafts and personal loans. Since the consumers are not pressured to pay for the products instantly, they end up making unthoughtful and unplanned purchases.

 3 Influence of credit card offers on impulsive buying behaviour

As argued by Robb (2011), the credit card offers are one of the key factors influencing the impulse buying behaviour in the retail market environment. Robb (2011) defines credit card offers as a payment mode widely used in purchasing products and services on credit. The usage of credit card offers has tremendously grown in the past decade. According to Thomas, Desai &Seenivasan (2011), the growth of credit card usage in the retail industry has been influenced by the parallel growth in other consumer credit cards such as higher purchase, bank overdrafts and personal loans. Further, the increase in the usage of the credit card usage in the retail industry has been greatly influenced by the dynamic developments of the global financial system that has created confidence in their usage (Joireman, Kees&Sprott, 2010). However, Ahmed et al. (2010) asserts that despite the benefits that stimulate consumers to use credit card offers, some setbacks should be considered before making a purchase. Ahmed et al. (2010) also argues that consumers who use credit card offers tend to make extra purchases than intended. The increased trend of using credit card offers is overwhelming in the retail industry. Different scholars have conducted empirical studies to investigate whether the credit cards have a significant impact on the impulse buying. Ahmed et al. (2010)’s study aimed at investigating credit card misuse in the Malaysian retail industry. The study utilised a sample of 230 respondents whose responses were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study established three key findings regarding the credit card usage. Firstly, the study proved that consumers will use their credit cards to buy more luxury goods to satisfy their emotional desires. Secondly, the research findings indicated that people with low self-esteem tend to overuse their credit cards in purchasing luxurious products to boost their esteem and self-worth. Thirdly, the study concluded that credit card offers enticed buyers to make impulsive purchases. However, the study did not take a keen interest in how credit card offers influence the level of impulsive buying. Another study was conducted by Foscht et al. (2010) who wanted to investigate the factors that affect the misuse of the credit card offers among the working population. The factors under consideration included the budget constraints, self-esteem and impulse buying. The researcher used 250 respondents from the Austria retail industry.

Research Model

The researcher successfully collected the empirical data from 230 respondents using the questionnaire survey. The collected data was hypothetically tested and the researcher established that materialism and impulsive buying contributed to the credit card misuse. Similarly, the study established that consumers had an impulsive buying tendency of spending beyond their means. These research findings are in line with the various reviewed literature that indicated that users of credit card offers tend to overspend in different retail markets (Podoshen, & Andrzejewski, 2012). The various studies have also shown a strong relationship between credit card offers usage and the indebtedness in consumer spending. However, the previous researches show inconclusive and inadequate findings regarding the influence of the credit card offers on the level of impulse buying in the retail industry. To address the current inconsistencies, this dissertation aims at investigating how the credit card offers, income level and the window displays influence the level of impulse buying in the Chinese retail industry. The research outcome will play a vital role in helping the consumers in the Chinese retail industry to control their impulsive buying desires.


The chapter explored and reviewed the previous literature concerning the impact of window displays, income level and the credit card offers on the level of impulse buying. Based on the existing literature, the impulsive buying is categorised into pure impulse purchase, suggestive impulse buying, reminder impulse buying and the planned impulse buying. The pure impulse buying is a purchase behaviour that goes against the shopping anticipated patterns. Under suggestive impulsive Orgranization behaviour, the consumer develops an interest to purchase a new product when he first comes into contact with it. Under the impulsive reminder buying, a product reminds the consumer that he needs it because it is out of stock in his home. In the planned impulsive buying behaviour, the customer already knows what to buy but the product choice, brand, size or price are not predetermined. The various theories that explain buyer behaviour includes the internal theory of buyer behaviour, the generic theory of buyer behaviour, the process theory of buyer behaviour and the cultural theory of buyer behaviour. The reviewed literature, however, revealed that little has been done in investigating the impact of window displays, income levels and credit card offers on the level of impulsive buying on the retail industry. Therefore, this study aims to at investigating the influence of the mentioned factors in the Chinese retail industry.

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