Learn Techniques For Time Management

OUMH1103

LEARNING SKILLS FOR OPEN DISTANCE LEARNERS

JANUARY 2015 SEMESTER  

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS / ARAHAN KEPADA PELAJAR

  1. This assignment contains FIVE (5) activities that is set in both Malay and English.  Tugasan ini mengandungi LIMA (5) aktiviti yang disediakan dalam bahasa Melayu dan bahasa Inggeris. 
  1. Answer in Malay or English. / Jawab dalam  bahasa Melayu atau bahasa Inggeris 
  1. Download the language version of the assignment template concerned from the MyVLE for preparation and submission of your assignment. Your assignment should be typed using 12 point Times New Roman font and 1.5 line spacing./ Muat turunkan templat tugasan versi bahasa yang berkenaan daripada MyVLE untuk penyediaan dan penyerahan tugasan anda. Tugasan and a hendaklah ditaip dengan menggunakan saiz fon 12 Times New Roman dan langkau baris 1.5.
  1. Your assignment should be between 2500 to 3000 words excluding Do not copy the assignment question and instructions to your answer. Only assignment answer developed within the approximate word limit will be assessed. The number of words should be shown at the end of your assignment. / Tugasan anda hendaklah mengandungi 2500 hingga 3000 patah perkataan tidak termasuk rujukan. Bilangan perkataan hendaklah ditunjukkan di hujung tugasan anda. Jangan menyalin soalan dan arahan tugasan dalam jawapan anda. Pemeriksa tidak akan membaca jawapan tugasan yang melebihi had patah perkataan yang dibenarkan. Jumlah perkataan hendaklah dinyatakan di penghujung tugasan anda. 
  1. You must submit your assignment TO YOUR FACE-TO-FACE TUTOR. You are advised to keep a copy of your submitted assignment for personal reference. / Anda dikehendaki menghantar tugasan KEPADA TUTOR BERSEMUKA. Anda dinasihatkan menyimpan salinan tugasan yang diserahkan untuk rujukan sendiri. 
  1. Your assignment must be submitted between 27th 29th March 2015 or Tutorial 4. Submission after 29th March 2015 or Tutorial 4 will NOT be accepted. / Tugasan anda hendaklah diserahkan antara 27hb – 29hb Mac 2015 atau Tutorial 4. Serahan selepas 29hb Mac 2015 atau Tutorial 4 TIDAK akan diterima. 
  1. Your assignment should be prepared individually. You should not copy another person’s assignment. You should also not plagiarise another person’s work as your own. / Tugasan hendaklah disiapkan secara individu. Anda dilarang meniru tugasan orang lain. Anda juga dilarang sama sekali memplagiat kerja orang lain sebagai kerja sendiri. 
  1. Please take note that PENALTY will be imposed on late submission of assignment as specified in the Registrar’s Office circular 6/2012 (Refer to Registrar’s Announcement in myVLE). / Sila ambil maklum tentang PENALTI yang akan dikenakan ke atas penghantaran lewat tugasan seperti yang tertera di pekeliling pejabat Pendaftar 6/2012 (Rujuk Registrar’s Announcement di myVLE). 

EVALUATION

This assignment accounts for 100% of the total marks for the course and shall be assessed based on the Rubrics or Answer Scheme attached.

You would be given feedback on the assignment before the Final Semester Examination commences. 

PENILAIAN 

Tugasan ini menyumbang sehingga 100% daripada jumlah markah kursus berkenaan dan akan dinilai berdasarkan kepada Rubrik atau Skema Jawapan yang dilampirkan. 

Anda akan diberikan maklum balas tentang tugasan ini sebelum Peperiksaan Akhir Semester bermula. 

PLAGIARISM: MARKS DEDUCTION 

Warning: The submitted assignment will automatically undergo a similarity check. If plagiarism is detected, marks would be deducted as follows:

  • Assignments with 10 – 30% overlap with others: 20% deduction from the total marks scored.
  • Assignments with 31 – 50% overlap with others: 40% deduction from the total marks scored.
  • Assignments with more than 50% overlap with others: Zero mark would be given. 

PLAGIARISME: POTONGAN MARKAH     

Amaran: Tugasan yang diserahkan, secara automatik, akan disemak untuk menentukan kadar pertindihan. Jika plagiarisme dikesan, markah akan dipotong seperti berikut: 

  • Tugasan dengan pertindihan kandungan antara 10 – 30%: potongan 20% daripada jumlah markah yang diperoleh.
  • Tugasan dengan pertindihan kandungan antara 31 – 50%: potongan 40% daripada jumlah markah yang diperoleh.
  • Tugasan dengan pertindihan kandungan lebih daripada 50%: Markah sifar akan diberikan. 

ASSIGNMENT QUESTION

PURPOSE

The purpose of this task is to assess your ability to:

  • search for information;
  • make notes from the reading material;
  • acknowledge other author’s work, and
  • demonstrate logical arguments/discussions with supporting facts and evidences. 

ACTIVITY 1 (20%) 

As a working adult learner,  you may faced various problems that may affect your studies.

In a 300-350 words, discuss what are the THREE problems faced by you? Provide constructive suggestions that may help you to cope these problems in order to give you the opportunity to excel in your studies.  

ACTIVITY 2 (20%)

A major challenge for all open and distance learner students is how to organise time to the best advantage. Planning time allows you to spread your work over a semester and cope with study stress.

Describe in a 300-350 word essay how best you can manage your time effectively in your study. 

ACTIVITY 3 (10%) 

Share your experiences and describe how you make use of myVLE to help you in learning? 

Note: Write a 150-200 word essay for the above activity. 

ACTIVITY 4 (25%) 

Read an article on Stress Management Assignment Help(refer to Attachment 1 of the assignment question).  Prepare a mind map and annotation of the essay that you have read. Hand in the mind map and annotation, together with the essay. 

ACTIVITY 5 (25%) 

Internet benefits students in many ways. As open and distance learner, share your experiences on how the Internet can maximize your learning. Write a 300-400 words of your experience.

TUJUAN

Tujuan tugasan ini adalah untuk menilai keupayaan anda dalam :

  • mendapatkan maklumat;
  • membuat nota dari bahan bacaan;
  • mengiktiraf kerja penulis lain, dan
  • mengemukakan hujah-hujah logikal/ perbincangan dengan sokongan fakta dan bukti. 

AKTIVITI 1 (20%)

Sebagai pelajar dewasa yang berkerja, anda mungkin menghadapi pelbagai masalah yang boleh memberi kesan kepada pembelajaran and.

Dalam 300-350 patah perkataan, bincangkan apakah TIGA masalah yang dihadapi oleh anda? Berikan cadangan yang konstruktif bagaimana untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut agar ianya dapat membantu anda dalam mencapai kejayaan yang cemerlang dalam pelajaran.
AKTIVITI 2 (20%)

Salah satu cabaran bagi pelajar jarak jauh terbuka adalah mengenai pengurusan masa yang baik. Perancangan masa membolehkan pelajar menjadualkan tugasan dan mampu menghadapi sebarang tekanan dengan baik.
Sebagai pelajar jarak jauh terbuka, terangkan bagaimana anda menguruskan masa dengan cara terbaik dan efektif. Penerangan anda hendaklah berbentuk  esei di antara 300-350 perkataan.

AKTIVITI 3 (10%)

Kongsikan pengalaman anda dan jelaskan bagaimana myVLE boleh membantu dalam mempertingkatkan pembelajaran anda?

Hasilkan tugasan ini dalam 150-200 patah perkataan berbentuk esei.

AKTIVITI 4 (25%)
Baca artikel mengenai ‘Pengurusan Stres (rujuk Lampiran 1 di soalan tugasan). Berdasarkan esei tersebut, anda dikehendaki menyediakan anotasi dan peta minda. Untuk aktiviti ini:

  • penyediaan anotasi perlu disediakan di atas cetakan esei tersebut; manakala
  • penyediaan peta minda disediakan di lampiran lain. 

AKTIVITI 5 (25%)

Internet memberi manfaat kepada pelajar dalam pelbagai cara. Sebagai pelajar jarak jauh terbuka, kongsikan pengalaman anda bagaimana Internet boleh memaksimumkan pembelajaran anda.

Hasilkan tugasan ini dalam 300-400 patah perkataan berbentuk esei.

ATTACHMENT 1

Stress Management                           

What is Stress?

Learn Techniques For Time ManagementStress is common place in the lives of college students. Learning to deal with stress means learning to understand what stress is, identifying common sources, and then practicing some method of stress reduction on a regular basis.

Everyone has some method(s) for dealing with stress. Sometimes the methods we use for dealing with stress are productive: meditation, exercise, and listening to our favorite music would be examples. But sometimes the methods we choose are not so positive: alcohol abuse, smoking and overeating would be examples. Though these negative stress management tools tend to work in the short term, in the long term they will have other negative health effects. It is best to find stress management tools that will have beneficial, positive health effects in the long run and yet still effectively manage stress in the short term. 

Coping with Stress

Working students have many sources of stress: university, jobs, relationships, family, money (the lack of it), etc. Perhaps there is no more important topic than how one can handle or cope with stress. This writing hopes to offer some practical advice on how to understand and manage one’s stress.

Definition:Stress refers to how the body responds to any number of physical or emotional stimuli (i.e., stressors).

The effects of this response are sometimes perceptible-such as an increased heart rate, respiratory rate, sweating, skin problems, or tense muscles. Other changes, though common, are not perceptible: increased blood pressure, metabolism, and changes in circulating fats. Continued exposure to stressors, especially of a negative type, will often lead to mental and physical symptoms such as anxiety, depression, heart palpitations, and muscular aches and pains. Eventually, if one cannot find a way to effectively regulate stress, various physical and mental disorders may develop which may be serious enough to cause disability and even death.

There are many kinds of stressors: burnt toast, crying kids, arguments with co-workers, exercise, loud sounds, productive work, viruses, bacteria, overexposure to the sun, and grief are all examples of stressors. While some of these stressors could be considered good, pleasant and/or beneficial, they nevertheless cause a similar generalized response in the body. For example, what does an argument with your boss have in common with jogging? Since they are both stressors, they will each cause increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased respiratory rate and muscle tension. Though your perception of these two stressors might be different, your body’s reaction to them is pretty much the same. Therefore, it is important to note that stress is cumulative. It doesn’t make any difference whether the stressor is good or bad. 

Stress can also be beneficial:-

We can’t always avoid stress, in fact, sometimes we don’t want to. Often, it is controlled stress that gives us our competitive edge in performance related activities like athletics, giving a speech, or acting

For any performance-related activity, there is an optimal amount of stress. If you are involved in an oral interview for a job, you will benefit from a certain amount of stress. It is stress that provides you with focus and gives you your “competitive edge” that will help you think quickly and clearly and express your thought in ways that will benefit your interview process. 

Sources of Stress

In order to combat stress in your life, you need to become aware of common sources of stress. While there are many sources of stress, the most important ones to you are the ones that you encounter frequently and that may serve as a source of distress with time.

  1. Situational Stress

Situational stress is caused by situational stressors in your immediate environment. An example would be sitting in an airplane as it is taxiing the runway for takeoff. You may be sitting, clutching the arm rests and hoping that you won’t need to use the emergency instructions that the stewardess has just explained to you.

Your work environment, while you are working, is considered a situational stress. You are running back and forth, dealing with customers, counting change, answering phones, etc. When your workplace is real busy, you may experience a high level of situational stress.

If your workplace is always busy, you may need some coping methods to help you function at high levels with the lowest possible negative reactions to the continual stress.

  1. Body Stress

Body stress is stress that results in overt physical symptoms. Examples include abuse, such as consuming too much alcohol, abusing drugs, or exercising too much. On the other hand, some people neglect their bodies by not getting enough sleep or proper nutrition.

Many people view it as a simple hangover, but drinking too much alcohol is a stress to the body. It reduces the amount of REM or dream sleep that you experience and results in a series of problematic symptoms such as headache, fatigue and inability to concentrate. This is an example of body stress that is caused by abuse of alcohol. What is the solution to this kind of stressor. Not too much can be done about an aggressive hangover except to wait out the symptoms. The most serious problem facing you would be to ensure that this type of abuse does not become a regular feature of your life.

Often, body stress is related to other sources of stress. For example, the reason that one abuses alcohol may very well have to do with stresses at work or with relationships. So, the abuse of alcohol and resulting body stress is really tied to a deteriorating relationship.

  1. Mind Stress

Mind stress is caused by negatively perceiving life events. Some people have a tendency to exaggerate problems or even invent problems that don’t exist. We sometimes say that these people make “mountains out of molehills”. Try to catch yourself being pessimistic, taking things personally or jumping to conclusions.

Mind stress is very common. You could be reading a book, listening to your teacher lecture or watching a movie, and suddenly you are no longer listening, but instead you are thinking about something that happened earlier that morning or something that will be happening later that day. To the extent that you are worrying or fretting over these details is an example of mind stress. People who frequently allow themselves to mentally worry or think negative thoughts are the most prone to the negative long-term effects of mind stress. 

How to Deal With Stress

Now that you have learned how to identify sources of stress in your life, and also how to measure the amount of stress you are experiencing, we can now talk about specific ways that you can use to counter the common stressors in your life. 

  1. Dealing with Situational Stress

The following interventions can be used to deal with the stresses that resulted from your immediate surroundings. 

  • Make changes in your surroundings

If you have a headache because you’ve been reading in poor light, move to another room where the lighting is better. Changing your surroundings can mean turning on lights, turning off loud music or raising or lowering your computer chair. Make a careful survey of the places where you spend a good deal of your time, your study place at home or your workplace for example. Check your surroundings carefully for potential situational stressors.

  • Caringly and carefully Communicate

You need to learn to communicate with those with whom you are having problems. Sometimes your situational stress is caused by people. This is a more complicated potential source of stress. Whenever there are problems, you owe it to yourself and to the other person to reach a mutually acceptable solution to the problem. This involves communication in a caring and careful way.

  • Learn how and when to say “NO”

Sometimes your stress is caused by taking on too many responsibilities. Some people have a habit of always saying “yes” to requests for help from others. Pretty soon they not only have all their own problems and responsibilities to attend to-they have everyone else’s too! You need to become more aware of your limits and learn when you have reached them. The next step is to practice saying “no”. Remember, your first responsibility is to your own health. You are of little use to others if you are not healthy.

  • Learn techniques for time management

Situational stress often results from feeling like we don’t have enough time to accomplish all we need to in a given day. In many cases it is not a lack of time that is the problem, but rather it is poor time management skills that lead us to this dilemma. Time management means different things to different people. For some, it will be something as simple as making lists of “things to do”. For others, learning to use daily planners and organizers will help them to better manage their time.

  • Delegate responsibilities

People with perfectionist tendencies have trouble delegating work. They have the attitude that, “If I want it done right, I have to do it myself”. They fear that by letting someone else help them with a given task, that they are losing control and that something will probably go wrong. We need to learn that there is more than just, “my way” of doing things. Learning to delegate responsibilities when they become overwhelming, will help you build more trusting relationships and will relieve your burden of too many stressors. 

  1. Dealing with Body Stress 
  • Practice relaxation training

Dealing with body stress often simply means dealing with the evident symptoms that are seen in the body. For example, when you see rapid, shallow chest breathing, you can counter that with the practice of more relaxed breathing technique. Or when you notice tense muscles in various parts of the body, you can practice systematically relaxing the muscles by consciously loosening the muscles that seem to be tense.

  1. Dealing with Mind Stress

The following interventions can be used when your stresses result from negative thinking or from a tendency to mentally create problems or unrealistic exaggerate problems. 

  • Develop and take “Star Treks”

A Star Trek is just another name for mental imagery, or visualization. Just as on TV when they “beam” people back and forth, you can mentally transport yourself to the most peaceful, relaxing place that you can think of. Imagine a beautiful beach scene or lying in an outdoor hot tub on a warm summer night. Whatever you imagine, be sure to pay attention to each detail. Take five or ten minutes out of your day for “Trekking”.  

  • Find health enhancing phrases and repeat them regularly

Write little notes to yourself which say, “Smile more today” or, “Don’t take things too seriously”, or whatever else might reinforce a relaxed state of mind. Post these little notes in places where you are likely to see them often (bathroom mirror, refrigerator door, etc.). Or perhaps, enlist the help of a friend. You can write these little notes to each other and leave them in places where they are sure to be found.  

  • Practice meditation and/or prayer

In the West, the techniques of meditation are often extracted from their Eastern religious traditions and provide simple methods for focus and concentration. A by-product of this focus is stress reduction. Meditation techniques have been shown to be effective in reducing heart rate and blood pressure, two common indicators of stress. Prayer can be used by those who are comfortable in a religious context. Prayer also allows focus (on God or on specific words of wisdom) and, as a result, often leads to a reduction in stress levels.

LAMPIRAN 1

PENGURUSAN STRES

Apakah stres?

Stres adalah suatu perkara yang biasa berlaku dalam kehidupan pelajar kolej/universiti. Belajar menangani stres bermakna belajar untuk memahami apa itu stres, mengenal pasti sumber-sumber stres, dan kemudian mengamalkan beberapa kaedah menangani stres secara konsisten.
Setiap orang mempunyai beberapa kaedah untuk menangani stres. Di antara kaedah-kaedah yang kita gunakan untuk mengatasi stres: meditasi, senaman, dan mendengar muzik kegemaran. Tetapi, adakalanya kaedah yang kita pilih itu tidak begitu positif: antara contoh-contohnya penyalahgunaan alkohol, merokok dan makan berlebihan. Walaupun kaedah pengurusan stres yang negatif akan memberi kesan dalam jangka masa pendek, tetapi di antara kesan jangka masa panjang, adalah mungkin boleh memudaratkan kesihatan. 

Menghadapi Stres

Pelajar yang bekerja sambil belajar  mempunyai banyak sebab berlakunya stres, di antaranya stres di  universiti, di tempat kerja, masalah perhubungan, masalah kekeluargaan dan masalah kekurangan wang dan mungkin juga boleh disebabkan oleh lain-lain perkara. Untuk itu, topik mengenai bagaimana seseorang boleh mengendalikan atau menangani stres adalah lebih penting untuk diperbincangkan.

Artikel ini berharap dapat memberikan beberapa panduan praktikal mengenai cara untuk memahami dan menguruskan stres.
Definisi stres: -Stres merujuk kepada bagaimana badan bertindak balas terhadap apa-apa rangsangan fizikal atau emosi. (penyebab stres).

Kesan tindak balas ini kadang-kadang dirasakan seperti kadar denyutan jantung dan  yang meningkat, berpeluh, masalah kulit (gatal-gatal), atau otot-otot menjadi tegang. Di antara perubahan-perubahan lain: peningkatan tekanan darah dan kadar metabolisme, dan perubahan kadar lemak yang tidak terkawal. Sekiranya stres tidak dikawal dengan baik, terutamanya daripada stres yang membawa kesan negatif, ianya boleh membawa kepada sakit mental dan fizikal seperti kebimbangan, kemurungan, jantung yang berdegup kencang (berdebar-debar), dan sakit-sakit otot. Akhirnya, jika kita tidak boleh mencari penyelesaian untuk mengawal stres dengan baik, ianya boleh menyebanbkan kepada pelbagai gangguan fizikal dan mental yang serius yang boleh  mendatangkan kecacatan dan kematian.
Terdapat banyak punca/sebab berlakunya stres. Di antaranya, kemarahan yang melampau, teriakan kanak-kanak menangis, berdebat dengan rakan sekerja, bunyi yang kuat, kerja yang terlalu produktif, virus, bakteria, pendedahan yang terlalu lama terhadap cahaya matahari, dan kesedihan yang melampau. Walaupun beberapa stres boleh dianggap baik, yang menyenangkan dan / atau memberi manfaat, namun stres ini menyebabkan tindak balas umum yang sama di dalam badan. Sebagai contoh, apakah berdebat dengan bos anda mempunyai persamaan dengan berjoging/bersenam? Oleh kerana kedua-dua itu boleh menjadi stres, ini akan memberikan tindakbalas terhadap peningkatan kadar denyutan jantung, tekanan darah akan meningkat, kadar pernafasan yang tidak normal (lebih laju dari kadar pernafsan biasa) dan otot-otot akan mengalami ketegangan. Walaupun persepsi kita terhadap kedua-dua stres ini mungkin berbeza, tetapi tindak balas badan kita terhadap punca stres adalah sama. Oleh itu, adalah penting untuk ambil perhatian bahawa stres adalah bersifat kumulatif. Ia tidak membuat apa-apa perbezaan sama ada mengurangkan stres yang baik atau buruk. 

Stres juga boleh memberi manfaat:

Sememangnya, kita tidak boleh sentiasa mengelakkan stres, walaupun sebenarnya, kita tidak mahu ianya berlaku. Ada kalanya, stres memberikan kita kelebihan untuk berdaya saing , sebagai contoh dalam aktiviti-aktiviti yang berkaitan pencapaian/prestasi antaranya aktviti bersukan seperti olahraga ataupun dalam memberi ucapan.

Bagi aktiviti yang berkaitan dengan pencapaian/prestasi, terdapat jumlah stres yang paling optimum. Contohnya, jika anda terlibat dalam temuduga (job interiew), anda akan mendapat manfaat akibat stres yang optimum – bermaksud jumlah stres optimum itu yang menyediakan anda untuk lebih fokus dan memberi “daya saing” yang tinggi yang dapat membantu anda berfikir dengan cepat dan kreatif dan dapat meluahkan suatu pemikiran yang kritis yang memberi manfaat kepada proses temuduga tersebut.
Punca Stres

Dalam usaha untuk menangani stres, kita perlu menyedari punca asas stres.

  1. a) Stres Disebabkan oleh Situasi

Stres disebabkan oleh situasi adalah berpunca daripada keadaan persekitaran. Sebagai contoh, jika anda sedang duduk dalam kapal terbang dan bersedia untuk berlepas; anda mengharapkan agar duduk sahaja sambil berpeluk tubuh tanpa perlu mengikuti arahan keselamatan yang diberikan oleh ketua pramugara/i.

Persekitaran di tempat kerja juga boleh berlakunya stres situasi. Sebagai contoh stres berlaku ketika anda berurusan dengan pelanggan, menjawab telefon, dan lain-lain. Apabila persekitaran tempat kerja anda terlalu sibuk, anda mungkin mengalami tahap stres situasi yang tinggi. Untuk itu, anda perlu mengetahui beberapa kaedah untuk membantu anda mengatasi stres situasi tahap tinggi dengan memberi reaksi negatif serendah yang mungkin terhadap stres yang berkenaan. 

  1. b) Stres badan

Stres badan adalah stres yang menyebabkan ancaman fizikal secara terang-terangan. Contohnya pengambilan alkohol yang banyak, penyalahgunaan dadah, atau menjalankan aktiviti fizikal yang terlalu banyak. Terdapat sesetengah daripada kita mengabaikan tubuh badan mereka sebagai contoh, tidak mendapat tidur yang cukup atau tidak mengambil pemakanan/diet yang betul/seimbang.
Ada pendapat sesetengah daripada kita mengatakan berhiburan , berpelesaran dan  meminum alkohol merupakan cara mengatasi stres. Akan tetapi minum terlalu banyak alkohol boleh memberikan stres kepada badan. Ianya juga akan memberi masalah kepada anda seperti sakit kepala, keletihan dan ketidakupayaan untuk menumpukan perhatian. Ini adalah satu contoh stres badan yang disebabkan oleh penyalahgunaan alkohol. Apakah penyelesaian untuk jenis ini dapat mengurangkan stres?  

  1. c) Stres fikiran

Stres fikiran disebabkan oleh  pengalaman mengalami peristiwa kehidupan. Sesetengah orang mempunyai kecenderungan untuk membesar-besarkan masalah atau mencipta masalah yang tidak wujud. Ada di anatara kita begitu pesimis terhadap pengalaman kehidupan, dan ada membuat kesimpulan bersifat peribadi. Stres fikiran adalah suatu perkara biasa.  Ketika anda membaca buku, mendengar ceramah, atau menonton filem, pada waktu yang sama, anda sedang berfikir tentang apa yang berlaku sebelum ini, itu adalah salah satu petunjuk  anda menghadapi stres fikiran. Bagi mereka yang sering membiarkan diri mereka terdedah kepada stres minda; sentiasa bimbang atau berfikiran negatif adalah mereka yang paling terdedah kepada kesan jangka masa panjang negatif stres fikiran. 

Bagaimana menangani Stres?

Di awal artikel ini, anda telah mengetahui bagaimana untuk mengenal pasti punca stres dalam hidup anda, dan juga bagaimana untuk mengukur jumlah stres yang anda alami, sekarang, kita bincangkan pula tenang cara-cara tertentu yang boleh anda gunakan untuk menangani stres yang anda alami.

  1. a) Menangani Stres disebabkan oleh situasi

Intervensi berikut boleh digunakan untuk menangani stres yang berpunca daripada situasi/persekitaran sekeliling anda.

  • Buat perubahan dalam persekitaran and Jika anda mempunyai sakit kepala kerana anda membaca dalam cahaya suram, berpindah ke bilik lain di mana cahaya lampu itu adalah lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Antara lain yang boleh anda lakukan untuk perubahan persekitaran anda ialah dengan mematikan muzik yang kuat,menyesuaikan (menaikkan atau menurunkan) kerusi komputer  dan lain-lain perkara yang anda boleh lakukan merubah persekitaran situasi/keadaan sekeliling anda. Semak persekitaran anda dengan berhati-hati bagi mengelak berlakunya stres situasi.
  • Berkomunikasi dengan penuh kasih sayang dan berhati-hati

Anda perlu belajar untuk berkomunikasi dengan penuh kasih sayang dan sentiasa berhati-hati kepada sesiapa pun yang sedang memberi anda masalah, walaupun adakalanya mereka ini yang memberikan anda stres situasi. Anda harus ingat, setiap kali ada mempunyai masalah, anda telah berhutang kepada diri sendiri dan kepada orang lain (yang memberikan masalah) untuk mencapai satu penyelesaian yang boleh diterima diantara satu sama lain mengenai masalah tersebut. Ini memerlukan komunikasi dengan cara yang paling baik dan kita hendaklah sentiasa prihatin dan berhati-hati dalam tutur kata yang dilafazkan.

  • Ketahui bagaimana dan bila untuk berkata “TIDAK

Kadang-kadang stres anda adalah disebabkan oleh mengambil terlalu banyak tanggungjawab. Sesetengah orang mempunyai tabiat selalu berkata “ya” kepada permintaan untuk bantuan daripada orang lain. Ekoran daripada itu, mereka terpaksa melaksanakan tanggungjawab tersebut, walaupun pada ketika itu mereka mempunyai masalah mereka sendiri dan juga masalah terhadap tanggunjawab terdahulu. Anda perlu mengetahui had kemampuan anda dalam melaksanakan tanggungjawab yang bakal anda lakukan agar ianya tidak memberikan suasana stres kepada anda. Langkah seterusnya adalah untuk berani berkata “tidak”. Ingat, tanggungjawab utama anda adalah untuk kesihatan anda sendiri.

Ketahui teknik pengurusan masa

Stres situasi sering berpunca daripada perasaan kita apabila kita tidak mempunyai masa yang cukup untuk melakukan sesuatu dalam tempoh masa yang ditetapkan. Dalam beberapa kes, bukan hanya kesuntukan masa, tetapi kadang kala akibat daripada pengurusan masa yang tidak berkesan membawa kita kepada dilema tersebut. Setiap individu memeberi intrepesai yang berbeza mengenai pengurusan masa. Bagi sesetengah orang, ia akan menjadi sesuatu yang mudah jika membuat senarai “perkara yang perlu dilakukan” (to do things list) Bagi orang lain, belajar menggunakan perancangan harian (planner) dapat membantu mereka untuk menguruskan masa dengan baik.

  • Membahagikan tugas

Orang yang mempunyai kecenderungan kesempurnaan mempunyai masalah membahagikan tugas. Mereka mempunyai sikap bahawa, “Jika saya mahu ia dilakukan dengan betul, saya perlu melakukannya sendiri”. Mereka takut bahawa dengan membiarkan orang lain membantu mereka dengan tugas yang diberikan, ianya tidak dapat dijalankan dengan sebaik mungkin. Kita perlu belajar bahawa tidak semua perkara dapat kita lakukan dengan baik, adakalanya orang lain dapat melakukan lebih baik dari kita. Belajarla untuk mempercayai kebolehan orang lain dan yakin terhadap usaha mereka. Ini akan membantu anda membina hubungan yang lebih baik dengan orang lain dan sedikit sebanyak akan meringankan beban anda daripada sebarang stres. 

  1. b) Menangani Stres Badan 
  • Amalan relaksasi

Menangani stres badan sering bermaksud urusan dengan anggota badan.  Sebagai contoh, apabila anda mengalami kadar pernafasan yang kencang, anda boleh menangani dengan amalan teknik pernafasan lebih santai/relaks/tenang. Atau apabila anda perhatikan otot-otot anda menjadi tegang di beberapa bahagian anggota badan, anda boleh mengamalkan regangan otot yang mudah bagi merehatkan otot-otot yang tegang.

  1. c) Menangani Stres Fikiran

Intervensi berikut boleh digunakan apabila stres anda terhasil daripada pemikiran  negatif atau dari kecenderungan untuk menimbulkan masalah mental atau masalah menokok tambah (tidak tahu asal usul masalah tersebut) dan ianya tidak realistik.

  • Membangunkan dan mengambil “Star Trek”

Star Trek adalah hanya satu lagi nama untuk imej mental, atau visualisasi. Sama seperti di TV di mana, penonton di ajak untuk berimaginasi mengenai dunia hadapan dan dunia sebelumnya. Ketika berimaginasi mengikut  kehendak keadaan, kita bebas untuk melakukanya dalam keadaan tenang, aman. Ambil masa sekurang-kurangnya lima hingga sepuluh minit untuk anda melakukan imaginasi yang indah-indah dan berikan perincian setiap yang anda bayangkan itu.

  • Gunakan frasa yang positif

Tuliskan nota kecil untuk diri sendiri yang mengatakan, “Senyuman hari ini adalah lebih baik dari semalam ” atau, “Jangan ambil terlalu serius”, atau apa-apa sahaja frasa yang dapat memberikan kesan positif  minda anda. Frasa-frasa positif ini boleh di tampal di kawasan-kawsan yang sering anda lalui/lihat contohnya; (cermin bilik mandi, pintu peti sejuk, dan lain-lain). Atau mungkin, anda boleh menulis frasa ini dan berikan kepada rakan sebagai tanda persahabatan.

  • Amalan meditasi dan/atau doa     

Teknik Meditasi telah terbukti berkesan dalam mengurangkan kadar tinggi denyutan jantung dan tekanan darah. Berdoa juga adalah salah satu cara yang terbaik boleh kita lakukan untuk menghindar dari stres.

ASSIGNMENT RUBRICS

OUMH1103 LEARNING SKILLS FOR OPEN DISTANCE LEARNERS

JANUARY 2015 SEMESTER 

ACTIVITY 1 and 2 (20 + 20= 40%) 

CATEGORYWEIGHT 

 

0

LOW

 

1

ABOVE AVERAGE

2

AVERAGE

 

3

EXCELLENT

 

4

TOTAL
INTRODUCTION1No introductionThere is no clear introduction to the main topic or structure of the paper.The introduction states the main topic, but does not adequately preview the structure of the paper nor is it particularly inviting to the reader.The introduction clearly states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper, but is not particularly inviting to the reader.The introduction is inviting, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.4
CONTENT2The main idea is not mentioned.The main idea is not clear. There is a seemingly random collection of information.The main idea is somewhat clear, but there is a need for more supporting information.The main idea is clear but the supporting information is general.There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main idea stands out and is supported by detailed information.8
CONCLUSION1No conclusion.There is no clear conclusion, the paper just ends.The conclusion is recognizable, but does not tie up several loose ends.The conclusion is recognisable and ties up almost all the loose ends.The conclusion is strong and leaves the reader with a feeling that they understand what the writer is “getting at.”4
ORGANISATION0.5Many details are not in a logical or expected order. There is little sense that the writing is organised.Some details are not in a logical or expected order, and this distracts the reader.Details are placed in a logical order, but the way in which they are presented/ introduced sometimes makes the writing less interesting.Details are placed in a logical order and the way they are presented effectively keeps the interest of the reader.2
LANGUAGE/ GRAMMAR0.5The writer makes more than 5 errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.The writer makes more than 4-5 errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.The writer makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.The writer makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.The writer makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.2
TOTAL20

 ASSIGNMENT RUBRICS 

ACTIVITY 3 (10%) 

NO

 

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

 

INDEXPOORAVERAGEGOODEXCELLENTMARKS

(MAX)

 

WEIGHT0123
Sharing experience2No sharing experience

provided

Demonstrates a minimal understanding (sharing experience) of myVLE and the focus used of myVLEDemonstrates adequate information (sharing experience) of myVLE and the focus used of myVLEDemonstrates a thorough understanding (sharing experience) of myVLE and the focus used of myVLE7.5
Organization0.5The information appears to be disorganized.Information is organized, but paragraphs are not well-constructed.Information is organized with well-constructed paragraphs.Information is very organized with well-constructed paragraphs. Well organized ideas that review the experiences.1.5
NO

 

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

INDEX WEIGHTPOOREXCELLENT
References1No reference(s) and

citation(s) are given

Reference and citation are provided using correct APA style1
TOTAL10

 ACTIVITY 4 (25%) Mind Mapping and Annotation 

NO

 

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

 

INDEXPOORAVERAGEGOODEXCELLENTMARKS

(MAX)

 

WEIGHT1234
MIND MAPPING (15%)

 

Understanding

2Bare minimum of content covered
No extension of ideas evident
Shows a basic level of coverage of key ideas only
Attempts extension of a few ideas
Shows a solid grasp of most of the content
Shows extensions of most key ideas
Shows a solid grasp of all the content covered
Extensions of the key ideas show a deep understanding of the content
6
Use of images/symbols

 

0.75The mind map includes a few imagesA few categories are enhanced with simple symbols or diagramsSome categories are enhanced with simple symbols or diagramsMost categories are enhanced with simple symbols or diagrams3
Use of colour

  

 

 

 

0.75Has failed  to include colour in the mind mapHas used very little colour in the mind map and has not used colour to categorise throughout the mind mapHas included colour to demonstrate some connections and/or to categorise topics throughout the mind mapHas included colour to show all connections and/or to categorise topics throughout the mind map3
Neatness and Presentation

 

 

0.75The mind map was not neat enough to understandThe mind map was not neat enough to understand most conceptsThe mind map was well presented and all the information is easy to understandThe mind map was well presented and all the information is easy to understand3
Annotation (10%)2.5Annotated text is not submitted on timeText is not consistently marked throughout.

Random passages appear to be marked; passages selected often have no real significance.

Annotated passages may be very long or very short.

Annotations include little/no marginalia or marginalia that is characterized by plot level questions or simplistic summary.

Annotations include little/no attempt to identify themes/purpose of text.

Annotations include little/no recognition of unfamiliar vocabulary.

Annotations do not reflect careful reading of the text; annotations do not reflect interaction between the reader and the text.

Text is marked throughout.

Longer passages (entire sentences/entire paragraphs) are the primary element annotated.

Commentary and notations in margins appear less frequently or do not respond directly to the passage annotated. Marginalia may be primarily summary or paraphrased statement with some attempt at analysis.

Annotations may not accurately identify purpose or themes of text.

Reader may have identified unfamiliar vocabulary but did not attempt to define the words.

Text is marked throughout.

Words and phrases are marked, and commentary and notations appear in the margins that indicate a response to the words and phrases marked.

Marginalia (comments in the margin) reflect application of literary terms, questioning, summarizing, and analysis.

Annotations accurately identify purpose and themes of the work.

Reader has identified unfamiliar vocabulary and attempted to define those words.

10
TOTAL25

 ACTIVITY 5 (25%)

CATEGORYWEIGHT 

 

0

LOW

 

1

ABOVE AVERAGE

2

AVERAGE

 

3

EXCELLENT

 

4

TOTAL
INTRODUCTION1No introductionThere is no clear introduction to the main topic or structure of the paper.The introduction states the main topic, but does not adequately preview the structure of the paper nor is it particularly inviting to the reader.The introduction clearly states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper, but is not particularly inviting to the reader.The introduction is inviting, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.4
CONTENT3The main idea is not mentioned.The main idea is not clear. There is a seemingly random collection of information.The main idea is somewhat clear, but there is a need for more supporting information.The main idea is clear but the supporting information is general.There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main idea stands out and is supported by detailed information.12
CONCLUSION1No conclusion.There is no clear conclusion, the paper just ends.The conclusion is recognizable, but does not tie up several loose ends.The conclusion is recognisable and ties up almost all the loose ends.The conclusion is strong and leaves the reader with a feeling that they understand what the writer is “getting at.”4
ORGANISATION0.75Many details are not in a logical or expected order. There is little sense that the writing is organised.Some details are not in a logical or expected order, and this distracts the reader.Details are placed in a logical order, but the way in which they are presented/ introduced sometimes makes the writing less interesting.Details are placed in a logical order and the way they are presented effectively keeps the interest of the reader.3
LANGUAGE/ GRAMMAR0.5The writer makes more than 5 errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.The writer makes more than 4-5 errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.The writer makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.The writer makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.The writer makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distracts the reader from the content.2
TOTAL25

 

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