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HNCB 038 Hydraulic Principles And Applications

QualificationUnit number and Title
HNC/D  Construction and the Built EnvironmentHNCB 038 Hydraulic Principles and Applications
Student NameAssessorInternal Verifier
T. FrankF Khan
Date issuedFinal Submission
2nd Feb 201524th May 2015
Assignment titleHydraulic Principles for Civil Engineering
Learning OutcomeLearning OutcomeAssessment CriteriaIn this assignment you will have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to:Task noEvidence  (Page no)
1Be able to solve engineering hydrostatic problems1.1explain the construction and application of pressure measuring devices1.1
1.2carry out calculations to determine the magnitude and position of hydrostatic forces1.2
2Be able to solve engineering flow problems2.1carry out calculations for pipeline flow problems2.1 , 2.2,


2.2carry out calculations for open channel flow problems2.4, 2.5,


3Be able to match pumps to demands

of specific systems

3.1carry out calculations to match pump(s) to the requirements of a specific system3.1, 3.2
4Be able to undertake hydraulic experimental procedures4.1carry out laboratory investigations into hydraulic


Covered in

separate laboratory report book

4.2produce reports on the findings of hydraulic laboratory investigations
Learner declaration

I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged.

Student signature:                                                              Date:

In addition to the above Pass Criteria, this assignment gives you opportunity to submit evidence in order to achieve the following MERIT and DISTINCTION grades
Grade DescriptorIndicative characteristic/sContextualisation
M1 Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutionsCorrect choice of procedures to solve problems such as those in

1.1 and 1.2, 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 2.6 and


Each these will need a clear strategy that must be obvious to the reader
M2 Select/design and apply appropriate methods/techniquesThis requires a clear understanding of techniques and the reason for their


Particularly important are the calculation techniques used throughout.  Tasks 1.1 and 1.2,  2.1, especially parts v, to vii. 2.3 iii to v,  and 3.1    How the practical results have been manipulated to obtain the required information system.
M3 Present and communicate

appropriate findings

Clear presentation so that it easy for the reader to assimilate the informationThis needs clear presentations of both calculations and of methods and techniques  throughout including the calculations and conclusions in task 4 on the practical handbook
D1 Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusionThe most obvious sign of this is to present a reflective paragraph at the end of the report showing how the

assignment was

i)                     put together and referenced and

ii)                   what       improvements                 in learning,                 researching, calculating                 techniques            and strategies  would be tried in future.

The need for a reflective section is obvious but also further demonstrations of this will be seen in the practical work where the experimental work will be put into a practical context and the experimental procedures used will be criticised for accuracy and reliability.
D2 Take responsibility for managing and organising activitiesThis takes two forms, the first is the quality and organisation of the report especially providing clear headings for each section.  The second area is to be able to keep to deadlines.One of the most important indicators of employability is keeping to deadlines and to provide clear presentations

convergent/lateral/creative thinking

This goes beyond the immediate knowledge and understanding stage into the wider application of knowledge to the real world.



Real evidence of showing how this can be applied in new areas for example looking at applications to reducing environmental impact or making operations more efficient etc.

Assignment Brief

Guidelines for assignment submission

•         The assignment has 4 Tasks.   Please read ALL TASKS carefully.

•         The Interim Presentation will be for TASKS 1 AND 2 and will cover LO1 and LO2 of the module.

•         The Final submission will cover ALL TASKS and Learning outcomes of the assignment.

•         The Merit and Distinction criteria will also apply to the Interim Submission.

•         The Interim grade will contribute to the overall grade.

•         The attendance percentage and participation in class tutorials will contribute towards the achievement of Distinction grade.

•         Both the interim and final assignments must be submitted on time to be considered for a Distinction grade.

•         PLAGIARISM is considered a serious offence and will automatically lead to a FAIL grade. In the event of similar/identical submissions, please note that both students will automatically fail the module

•         When IPADS/TABLETS/MACS are used please make sure documents are saved as .doc.  Otherwise submission will not be valid and considered as a non-submission.

Purpose of the assignment
Assignment TitleEngineering Gelology and Soil Mechanics
Task 1:
LO1: Be able to solve engineering hydrostatic problems

LO1.1Pressure measuring devices: manometers; other instruments (used to measure fluid pressure and pressure differentials)


i)      A manometer using mercury shows a difference between the level of 0.11m when attached to the top of a tank containing liquid under pressure.    Some liquid is added to the open end of the manometer to a depth of 1m and the difference between the levels of the mercury is now 0.01m.   What is the density of the liquid added to the manometer?

ii)     An unvented water system is being retro fitted into a building and some concern is expressed that not all the taps and joins in the plumbing system are capable of withstanding3 bar pressure.  It was felt that all these taps and joints could withstand a pressure of 1 bar.    What kind of measuring equipment would be used to check the mains pressure and in what area of the building would the pressure be taken?

1.2 Hydrostatic forces: magnitude and location of hydrostatic forces acting on submerged bodies

(plane and curved surfaces, vertical and inclined surfaces)


A dam of 85 m in length holding water to a depth of 45m  in a reservoir.   Calculate (i)   the position of the centre of pressure Assume density of water is 1000 KGm-3 and acceleration due to gravity is 9.81m3s-1   

(ii)            the total force acting on the dam.

(iii)           If the wall of the dam is 60m above the base and the maximum force that is considered safe for the dam to withstand is 30MN, at what height must the spillway that sets the maximum depth be situated?

Task 2:
LO2: Be able to solve engineering flow problems

2.1 Engineering flow problems: flow classification; analytical principles; closed conduit flow; uniform open channel flow; flow measurement in open channels


i)        If a channel is 5m wide with a slope of 0.001 and the Manning number is 0.03 and the channel depth is 0.8m.   What is the total flow in m3s-1?

ii)       A 15mm diameter pipe of length 10m is delivering water to a tap.   When the tap is fully open

the delivery is 0.01m3s-1  assuming that the kinematic viscosity of water is 1.02 x 10-3 Nsm-2 at 200C  calculate the Reynolds number and state whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.

iii)      Analyse the relative advantages  of a sharp crested weir and a broad crested weir for measuring flow in a water course. Visit Now : HND Hospitality Management Assignment

iv)     Explain with the aid of diagrams how a broad crested weir can be used as a critical depth meter and what minimum flow conditions need to be maintained

v)      .A broad crested weir is inserted in a channel to measure the flow rate and warn of potential flooding downstream.    Calculate the height of water above the weir when the flow rate is 10m3s-1.  The width of the weir is 2m   Assume no energy loss through the weir.

Energy line

vi ) Prepare a graph showing how the height yc would vary between flows of 10 and 20m3s-1 vii) What are the Froude Numbers for the flow at 5 , 10 and 15m3s-1 ?

2.2 Flow classification: laminar and turbulent flow; uniform and non-uniform flow; steady and unsteady flow

i)      When water completely fills a pipe state at what point the flow changes from laminar to turbulent and state what factors affect the change over point

ii)     When water flows in an open channel at what point does the flow change from quite  to “turbulent”.

iii)    Compare the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a full pipe with placid changing to turbulent in an open channel flow situation.

iv)    Calculate the critical depth in a channel of width 0.5m with a flow of 1m3s-1 vi)      Define uniform flow and non – uniform flow vii) Define steady and unsteady flow.

2.3 Analytical principles: continuity; conservation of energy (Bernoulli’s equation); forces due to rate of change of momentum


i)      State the Bernoulli equation and thus how pressure measurements may be used to estimate the flow rate in a pipe.

ii)     State the continuity principle for open conduit flow and show how we can use this to estimate

iii)   HNCB 038 Hydraulic Principles And Applications A horizontal section of pipe of diameter 200mm narrows down rapidly to 100mm diameter and then gradually increases over a distance of 480mm to the original diameter.  A water filled manometer is connected such that the pressure in the pipe is measured some 200mm before the narrowing of the pipe starts and the other end of the manometer is connected to the pipe at its narrowest point. Use Bernoulli’s equation to derive an expression for the average flow velocity in the pipe and hence the volume flow in the pipe.  You may assume that the energy loss through this venturi is negligible .

iv)    If the pressure difference at this point is 0.34m, calculate the velocity of the flow in the pipe and hence the flow rate in m3s-1

v)     A further measurement is made of the pressure difference before the venturi and beyond the other end of the venturi.   What would this show about the difference between the assumptions behind the original Bernoulli equation and the real world.

vi)    State  briefly what we found from an experiment examining the force exerted by a jet of water on different shapes of target.

2.4 Closed conduit flow: frictional heat loss in pipes and pipe systems; minor (form) head losses; roughness and variation of friction factor

i)       Head loss in pipe fittings is expressed in the form h = k(u’2/2g) where u’ is the mean velocity in the pipe.    Explain what causes this loss when water flows from a smaller to a larger pipe.

ii)      What can be done to the junction between the two pipe diameters to reduce this loss

iii)     Water flows in a pipeline where there is an abrupt change of diameter from 140 to 250mm.   If the head loss from the smaller to the larger diameter pipe is 0.6m, give an estimate of k if the delivery is 0.15m3s-1

iv)     What would be the head loss were the water to flow through a similar junction from a pipe of 250mm diameter to one of 140mm diameter at the same flow rate assuming that the value of k is unchanged?

2.5 Uniform open channel flow: Chezy and Manning velocity equations; normal and critical depths; specific energy and specific force; super-critical flow; the hydraulic jump

i)       A drainage channel of width 2m and length 200m with a slope of 0.0015 lined with concrete with a Manning n value of 0.035 can be filled safely to a depth of 1.2m.  Calculate the mean velocity of flow at maximum delivery.

ii)      Calculate the maximum delivery iii) Explain the terms “super critical flow” and “sub- critical flow” iv) Explain what a hydraulic jump is and what it is used for.

v) The depth of water approaching a normal hydraulic jump is 1.2m and at the end of the jump has risen to 3.2m.   Calculate the energy loss through the jump in meters of head.

2.6 Flow measurement in open channels: velocity area methods; gauging structures e.g. broad crested weir, venturi flume

Draw up a summary table comparing advantages of measuring flow in open channels :

a)             using a gauging structure such as a sharp crested weir and

b)             a method which combines a measurement of the average flow velocity and the area of cross section of the flow channel

Task 3:

LO3: Be able to match pumps to the demands of a specific system

3.1 Pump matching: energy and hydraulic gradients in pump-pipeline systems; pump performance and characteristic curves; pump selection to operate in a given system; pumps in series and parallel


i)      The table given below gives the characteristics of a centrifugal pump running at a steady speed:

Discharge Q litres/s010203040506070
Head Hm m45.044.743.742.540.638.035.031.0



Fresh water is pumped to a service reservoir through a 350mm diameter pipe 10km long.   The static head is 20m.  Determine the discharge in the through the pipe and the power requirement of the pump.   (This will need you to plot the pump – characteristic, system characteristic and efficiency curves against flow rate (Q).  You must also find the operating point>  Assume the friction factor f = 0.0045 and take minor losses at ten times the velocity head.

ii)     In the above problem, if the static head were 40m not 20m, and you had a second identical pump available, explain how would you have arranged these pumps to overcome this much greater head?

3.2 Specific systems: hydrodynamic machines; classification of pumps and turbines (radial, axial, reaction)

i)          Outline the essential differences between a pump and a turbine especially in how efficiency is expressed.

ii)         Outline the application of the three main types of turbine (radial, axial and reaction)

 Task 4:
LO4: Be able to undertake hydraulic experimental procedures

Experimental procedures: determination and investigation of hydrostatic forces; pressure measurement; velocity and flow measurement (pipes and open channels); energy losses (pipe systems); hydraulic jumps; pump characteristics

This will be assessed by a separate practical work book.
Evidence checklistSummary of evidence required by studentEvidence presented
Task 1Demonstrate familiarity with pressure in fluids measurement and the forces developed
Task 2An understanding of the different types flow in pipes and open channels and the conditions of flow as illustrated by Reynolds Number and the Froude Number.  Measurement of flow in both systems and comparison of different measuring systems.
Task 3A basic understanding of pump personal performance curves and their use in calculating optimum conditions and secondly a basic understanding of hydrodynamic machines
Task 4Practical lab report book
Sources of information
Writing Guidelines

•         Your evidence for assessment must be handed in with a signed learner declaration.

•         You must hand in group work for assessment for all tasks.

•         Throughout the assignment you should underpin your responses with appropriate theories.

•         Ensure that all required Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria are covered in

the assignment.
Ensure to provide citations, referencing and bibliography under Harvard

Referencing System for your submission and it must fully acknowledge sources such as books and journals, websites etc.

Including quotations, but exclusive of the reference list, bibliography and appendices, the assignment might be written in 2000 – 3000 words in length.
Submit a word-processed report and use Times New Roman/Arial font and font size 12. Use 1.5 or 2.0 line spacing.
All assignments will be subject to Plagiarism checks. Ensure your assignment does not contain the Collusion and Plagiarism of any type, which is illegal and attract disciplinary action against the learner.
Ensure to follow the Standard Report Format for  report preparation:

(This an indicative structure)

•         Introduction

•         Contents page (with a detailed numbering system)

•         Tasks (use headings, sub-headings)

•         Findings/Discussion

•         Recommendations

•         Conclusion/Summary (summarizing the whole scenario justifying methods used)

•         References

•         Bibliography

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