Topic:The role of tourism inshaping Zambia’s public diplomacy
The general objective of the proposed investigation is to analyse the contribution of tourism to shaping Zambia’s public diplomacy. Specific objectives include the following:
- To determine if there is a significant relationship between tourism and public diplomacy
- ii. To assess the extent to which tourism industry in Zambia contributes in constraining or improving Zambia’s public diplomacy
iii. To assess thegeneral public, government and tourists perception of the tourism industry in relation to public diplomacy in Zambia
The central question, that the proposed study seeks to answer, is;
What is the role of Tourism in shaping Zambia’s Public Diplomacy?
In answering the above question the proposed study seeks to investigate in-depth:
- What relationships exist between tourism and public diplomacy?
- What opportunities are created by tourism that would contribute to Zambia’s positive public image?
- How does the general public, the Zambian government and tourists perceive tourism and its relation to public diplomacy?
Background, Context and Literature
Global tourism has experienced continued growth and extended diversification, over the decades to become one of the fastest growing industry in the world (UNWTO, 2013). Modern tourism growth has been diligently linked to thedevelopment and includes growing number of new destinations. These dynamics have turned tourism into a key driver for social-economic progress.According to UNWTO 2013 highlights despite occasional shocks, international tourist arrivals have shown virtually uninterrupted growth – from 25 million in 1950 to 278 million in 1980, 528 million in 1995, and 1,035 million in 2012. In terms of thelong-termoutlook, UNWTO has focused that international tourist arrivals worldwide will increase by 3.3% a year from 2010 to 2030 to reach 1.8 billion by 2030. Between 2010 and 2030, arrivals in emerging destinations (+4.4% a year) are expected to increase at double the pace of that in advanced economies (+2.2% a year) (UNWTO, 2013).
Public diplomacy is simply a system used to sway foreign publics without using force. According to the Fletcher graduate School of International Affairs at Tufts University, public diplomacy is defined as a system that has influence on public attitudes on how foreign policies are formulated and implemented. It includes scopes of international relations beyond the typical traditional diplomacy. The promotion by governments on how the international public perceive the country, the way the private groups interact with those in another country. The way foreign affairs business is conducted, the communication systems between diplomats and foreign correspondences; the most important with public diplomacy is the way in which information and ideas flow (Tufts University, n.d)
Maintaining a positive public image and reputation is high on the governance agenda of any country in today’s modern society. All states developed and developing ones are striving to maintain a sound image abroad as foreign public opinion helps shape a country’s reputation. Any state’s public image in the world is primarily shaped by the policies it pursues and incidents in and concerning it.
In this respect tourism as a global and ever expanding industry that involves mass movement of people from one place to the other. Itis an important influencer on how the public perceives other countries. There is also no doubt that many countries devote their resources and services to tourism in order to shape a positive international perception of a country. Tourism been a global industry has the largest reach into foreign societies, and its impact on public diplomacy cannot be doubted.
The other important point is that tourism promotion normally has a significant funding through the participation of the private sector which is debatably a larger part than what a country would spend on public diplomacy promotion. Thus, even where a foreign public is targeted by foreign ministry public diplomacy activities its perceptions are going to be shaped by tourism promotion.
The proposed dissertation work will be non-empirical based on qualitative research methodology, and all the data will come from already published scholarships utilizing the university library, the internet, and other official Zambian government publications. The study will also carry out telephone and face to face interviews with Zambian public, tourists that have visited Zambia and government officials in the Ministry of Tourism and those at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Zambian Missions abroad.In the case of interviews, random sampling will be employed.
Data for the proposed dissertation will be analyzed using thematic data analysis system.
The possibleresultof the proposed study is the impact of tourism on Zambia’s public diplomacy and how tourism can be utilized to improve Zambia’s public diplomacy further. By exploring the above question, the intention of the proposed study is to provide adetailed overview of the role of tourism in contributing to Zambia’s public image building.
Significance and Contribution
The proposed study is significant not only to the tourism and public diplomacy scholars but also to policy makers in Zambia and other countries of the world. The proposed study will contribute to the body of knowledge and highlight important issue in the quest to find out the relationship between tourism and public diplomacy.
Relevant primary sources:
The primary source of information for the proposed study will be based on official publications from the Zambian government especially Zambia’s Foreign Policy, Zambia’s Tourism Policy and other officialdocumentations
Likely secondary sources:
FAN Shih-Ping (2010), The Effects ofChina’s Tourism Diplomacyand a “United Front”China: An International Journal, Vol 8, Iss. 2, pp. 247-281
Jacques Richardson, (2004),”American diplomacy revisited: is “military tourism” essential?” foresight, Vol. 6 Iss. 2 pp. 110 – 115
Jan Melissen, (2006), “Public diplomacy between theory and practice”, accessed online on 12/01/2015 from http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20061200_cdsp_paper_melissen.pdf
Jay Wang, (2006),”Public diplomacy and global business”, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 27 Iss. 3 pp. 41 – 49
L’Etang, J. (2006a). Public relations in sport, health and tourism. In J. L’Etang& M. Pieczka (Eds.), Public relations—Critical debates and
contemporary practice (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 241–263). Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Philip Kotler and David Gartner (April 2002:251): “Country as a brand, product and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective,” The Journal of Brand Management 9
Tilson, D. J., & Stacks, D. W. (1997). To Know Us Is To Love Us: The public relations campaign to sell a ‘business-tourist-friendly’ Miami. Public
Relations Review, 23(2), 95–115.
UNWTO (2005). Making Tourism More Sustainable – A Guide for Policy Makers, (Madrid: Spain).
UNWTO (2013). Tourism Highlights (Madrid: Spain)
Dissertation Aim – this could well be your evolving Post-It explanation.
Objectives – these could well be your key objectives from your wiki entry.
Relevant Primary Sources – these will emerge from the Primary Source tutorials.
Likely Secondary Sources – approximately eight sources you think might be relevant, drawn from your familiarity with Leicester e-link and the other sources.
Your topic broadly conceived should align with your MA programme (i.e. if you are registered on the American Foreign Policy MA your dissertation should fall into this field).
- Kindly be reminded that there no use of sexist, racist and other offensive forms of language in oral presentations and written assignments
- The word count is between 12000-15000 and this word count DOES NOT include the bibliography or citations/references in the text(Harvard Style referencing) or in footnotes or endnotes (Chicago Style referencing). ANY OTHERINFORMATION INCLUDED IN A FOOTNOTE OR ENDNOTE OTHER THAN A REFERENCE OR CITATIONWILL BE INCLUDED IN THE WORD COUNT