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Cognitive behavioural Therapy is an effective way to change the clients thinking way based on the emotions and organisation behaviour. The therapy helps the clients to deal with the problems they are facing in case of self scolding or inner feelings. The report will highlight the details of the Cognitive Behaviour Theory, problems faced by the clients, treatments that are used to follow in the CBT therapy and lastly the merits and demerits of the CBT in reducing the irrational thought process of the clients or the patients. In report we the various treatments and its effectiveness will also be highlight in order to select the effective methods of the CBT treatments. Overall the report will give the importance of the CBT in changing the behaviour of the individual for placing the positive behaviour and actions.

1. According to Ellis the irrational patterns of thinking that clients cling to be reinforced by their internal language or self scolding.  Discuss the role of CBT therapist in helping the clients to change these patterns of thinking.

In order to discuss the role of the CBT therapist to the help the client regarding their irrational thinking which are reinforced by the internal language, it is necessary to understand the Cognitive Behavioural Theory is all about.

At the very first Albert Ellis is highly dissatisfied with the classical psychotherapy but he agreed the irrational forces influence the individual’s behaviour and thought process. He also claimed that these irrational forces are not only for the individual’s childhood surroundings but also the other factors. Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT) is one of the types based on the psychotherapy which is used for the treatment of the mental disorders. It mainly helps the individual to get rid of the negative thinking and the behaviour. The treatment is depend upon the blend of the principles based on the behavioural and cognitive. In a brief we can say that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is focused towards the action and helps the individual to evidence the relationship that exist between the feelings, thoughts with the patterns of the individuals behaviour. CBT highlight that the perceptions of the individual influence the responses based on any situations. So we can say that the thought or the feelings of an individual directly influence the action of that concerned individual. (National Health Service, 2014)

The objective of the CBT is to reduce the problems of the clients or the patients by dealing them in a positive way. It supports the individual to tune-up their thought process, beliefs, physical sensations that leads to give the negative impact on their behaviours. CBT provides an effective treatment based on the mental problems like panic disorder, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, eating disorders, insomnia etc. Read more : University Of Moncton Nursing Home

It has been observed while studying the behaviour of the individual that it is the perception of the individual which influence the event. For instance if an individual is highly anxious that the concerned day will go bad then it is the role of these negative thoughts which will influence him/her to concentrate only on the negative side. This will prevents the individual to find out the positive way and when all the results seems to be negative then this individual is trapped in the hand of the depression or irrational thoughts that can also hamper the life. Here comes the treatment of the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy where the therapist will modify the inner thoughts of the individual in order to find the positive and the healthy side of the life. As per Aaron T. Beck who is considered to be the father of the cognitive theory claimed that the behaviour or the pattern of the thinking of an individual is linked with the childhood grooming and the surroundings beside him/her.

Under CBT, the therapist has identified certain assumptions of an individual that are dysfunctional which are as follows: (Prochaska and Norcross, 2003)

Self-references: In this case individual thinks that everyone used to give the attention when he/she fails in achieving something

Selective-abstraction: In selective-abstraction, the individual used to think that the failures of her/him are the variable for evaluating his competencies.

Over-generalising: Over here the individual thinks that if anything has happened in the first chance then it will happen for all the cases.

Excessive responsibility: The individual used to think that he is only responsible for the entire success or failure that has happened.

Dichotomous thinking: The individual is used to evaluate the whole world in two spheres like black or white and nothing is between that.

The process of the Cognitive behavioural is aligned with the educational models that support the individual to replace the negative reactions, feelings with the positive reactions, emotional outflow. Basically all the problems of the individuals are break down into the small parts and then specific short-term goals are set for each part which is adjusted according to the individual reacts or think during treatment process.

The techniques used in the CBT involve a structured process. There are sessions conducted by the CBT therapist for the client who is suffering from the negative feelings or mental disorders. These sessions have clear cut goals associated with a time. The basic approach of CBT therapist used to create and establish a friendly relationship with the client or the patient in order to gather the relevant information which is not biased or being made out of fear or improper. After analysing all the information system gathered from the clients or patient, the therapist will give some situations and asked the client to select the one which he/she prefers. The selection of the situation will help the therapist to understand the individual where they are lying at present. The other techniques followed by the CBT therapist in order to provide solutions to the clients or the patients are as follows:

Journaling: Journaling is one of the technique that supports the life balance, growth etc. Basically journaling implies the recording of the daily activities, feelings, thoughts in a personal diary. The therapist prescribes this tool to the clients for noting down all the confusions that are coming to his/her way. These journals will help the individual to aware of the situations or the things which are distracting their way. In the next time they will be conscious to the previous situations and can avoid those in order to get the positive result. The therapist can also access those writings in order to understand the issues which are creating the problems for the client and accordingly they can suggest the measures to overcome the problems. The negative side of this tool is the inappropriate recording of the activities or the feelings which are actually not occurred but the perception influence the client to observe it and to write it in their personal notepads. (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013)

Challenging: It is often found that the individual used to belief certain things very strongly. But after analysing those beliefs the CBT therapist found that those are the irrelevant and impractical beliefs which are influencing them to move towards the negative side. In this case the therapist used to challenge the individual that those beliefs are irrelevant by showing several practical examples in order to convince them. The first step is to show the client that the beliefs are absolutely incorrect which they prefer provided by several practical examples and then the therapist used to focus in order to deviate them from those beliefs. After the reaction of the clients then the therapist used to show many examples for convincing them to replace those beliefs with the new beliefs that are positive. The negative impact can be the arguments between the therapies and the client which can influence the client to stick to their old beliefs.

Mindfulness: Mindfulness is the process which helps the individual to judge the situation by considering the present rather than the past or the future outcomes. It involves the meditation process which boost the individual’s by pouring positive emotions rather than the negative ones. Based on the irrational thoughts, mindfulness is the ideal process to keep the individual protected from the negative feelings or thoughts. It also increases the attention and the memorising skills. Practising the mindfulness, tunes the individual’s way of thinking and behaving. The negative area could be the time. It takes more time to tune up the individual’s thinking process and it requires a daily practice.

Relaxation: It is one of the effective methods suggest by the CBT therapist to assist the client to relax that can reduce the anxiety level, stress etc. For instance the negative thoughts of the individuals can be reduced if the individuals go for an outing with his/her closed ones. Often the therapist used to suggest the individual to go for a trip, listening to the music he/she prefers etc. The level of the stress or the anger or any other negative feelings can be reduced and will provide the relaxation to the clients. The negative side will be the temporary approach. Relaxation gives temporary relief to the clients suffering from the mental disorders and often they can come back to their earlier stage at any time.

Physical Exercises: The therapist used to suggest the clients to do the physical exercises in order to divert their negative feelings towards the positive. Physical exercises help the individual to enhance the immune system as well as the nervous system. It has been noticed that the individual while adopting this method used to judged the situation in a positive way. See more : University of Cumbria

Apart from all these methods there are also another ways used by the CBT therapist in order to reduce the mental disorders or the negative feelings of an individual in the following assessment that is related with the CBT:

  • The first step is to identify the behaviour of the individual or the client which are critical
  • Second step is to determine the level of the behaviour that is in excess or deficits.
  • The third step is to examine the frequency or the duration of the behaviour
  • The last step is to reduce the frequency if the level is high in case of the critical behaviour and if it is deficit then the frequency will need to be reduced.

CBT sessions are conducted by the therapist in order to change the individual who always focus their thought, feelings towards the negative. Generally 5 to 20 sessions are conducted and the duration of the each session is between 30 to 60 minutes. The sessions have an objective to trace the thoughts, feelings and the actions taken by the clients. Based on that information the therapist will help the client to change the feelings or the thoughts. The therapist generally prescribes the clients to follow the changes in their daily life.  The therapist used to conduct the CBT in various forms that are as follows:

Individual Therapy: Individual therapy simply implies the one is to one session with the clients

Group Therapy: The groups will be formed who are suffering from the mental problems and then the treatment will start by the therapist

Self help book: It is a book which will help the individual to carry out the exercises as mentioned in order to reduce the negative behaviour. (Robertson, 2010)

There are advantages and the disadvantages that are related with the CBT treatment that are as follows:


  • CBT treatment can cure the client permanently by changing the thought process
  • CBT treatment does not have any sort of side effects.
  • The treatment procedure is very much simple and that can be adopted by any kind of patient.


  • CBT therapist must have high skills and expertise knowledge in conducting the sessions for the CBT treatments
  • Often the clients used to hide or give irrelevant information as they are suffering from the mental trauma or disorders
  • The treatment cannot ensure that the client will be cured as there is a chance which can influence the thought process of the clients in future.

So we can that the clients who used to prefer the internal language or self scolding, CBT therapy can change their patterns of thinking. The aim of the CBT is to trace the individual’s negative thought and the beliefs and then to convert those negative elements in to the positive ensuring a healthy life with the variety of the treatments used by the CBT therapist as mentioned above. It is a medication that modifies the thinking level of the individual which will only give positive essence towards his behaviour and his/her action. So we can say that CBT is focused with both the problems and actions that are related to the clients or the patients in order to enhance the positive emotions or feelings in them.


In order to conclude I can say that Cognitive behavioural Therapy helps the clients to deal with the problems they are facing in case of self scolding or inner feelings. The report has highlighted the details of the Cognitive Behaviour Theory, problems faced by the clients, treatments that are used to follow in the CBT therapy and lastly the merits and demerits of the CBT in reducing the irrational thought process of the clients or the patients. In the report I have shown the various treatments and its effectiveness which will help to choose the effective methods of the CBT treatments. Overall the report will give the importance of the CBT in changing the behaviour of the individual for placing the positive behaviour and actions.

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