This is a solution of Business Organization System part 1 in which we discuss The factor of quality has an effect on the success attained by the organization.


Business Organization System part 1

Quality assurance is one of the main aspects which can create competency for any organization. Whatever be the nature of the business, which ranges from finance to an engineering company or any other type of tertiary service, quality is the aspect which is most important. The factor of quality has an effect on the success attained by the organization. Hence it is not at all advisable to compromise with the aspect of the quality. It has to be understood that the product or service which is being delivered by the company and consequently its popularity will enhance only if the company provides quality. Hence it is very important for an organization behavior to conduct the process of quality assurance during the project to ensure the quality factor of the project outcomes. As we know quality assurance is the methodical scrutinizing and assessment of the different factors of a project, service or capacity to maximize the likelihood that at least lowermost standard of quality is being achieved by the process of production or the project. If an organization fails to attain the required level of quality in its product or service then it will lost the potential customers even if it offers the lowest price of the market. Thus, it is imperative to guarantee the quality of the product or service by carrying out some scientific techniques. Quality assurance is one of these techniques.

Multinational conglomerates have a different department of well trained professionals who generally design and put into practice the quality assurance measures for it. There are widely recognized quality assurance standards which are used by the companies to define the kind of quality assurance the use in their processes. One very famous of these quality assurance standards is ISO 9001. These Standards exist because many large organisations will not buy from suppliers who cannot give them assurance that they have systems which support quality. These large organisations include Government Organization Defence Departments, Health Departments, car manufacturers such as Ford, Toyota, and General Motors, and Aerospace companies such as Boeing and Lockheed.It has been observed throughout that successful businesses unavoidably put immense importance on having a control over the quality of the products – cautiously designed measures implemented to make sure that the products and services which are offered to the clientele are reliable and consistent and do meet the needs of the customers without a fail. This is where it is very important to understand the kind of impact the process of quality assurance has on the outcome of the projects which are being pursued by some certain organization. For decades, Japanese businesses have pioneered management report intended to improve quality continuously. American and European companies have spent years catching up.

An organization tries to take the help of a variety of strategies for diverse reasons like to expand the customer base, to increase the market share, to enhance the brand image in the minds of the existing as well as potential customers and thus increase sales. But often a company fails to successfully capture the target market with its products or services due to the poor quality of the manufactured product or service. The ever evolving market conditions related to the factor of quality also does not help the cause. Thus, it becomes extremely important to know the key issues and conditions that may help a company to successfully execute its quality control strategy. Hence the research which will be carried out will help in understanding of the quality assurance approach by analyzing the strategies and kind of impact it has on the outcome of a project management. The theories which are necessary to form a basic understanding of the qualiy assurance will be identified in the literature review.The research will be conducted through a secondary research based on the existing literatures regarding quality assurance and different kind o impacts it has on the outcome of a project.


Defining Quality
It is imperative that we first define the concept of quality before we go on to explore the existing literatures on the topic of quality assurance.One of the predominant issues with the literature which are related to quality and quality assurance is the way to define and measure “quality”. Harvey and Knight (1996) recognize the following significances which are recognized with respect to quality:
• Quality as outstanding, i.e., excellently high benchmarks of accomplishment;
• Quality as perfection (or consistency), which concentrates on procedures and their stipulation and is related to zero defects and culture related to quality;
• Quality as fitness for purpose, which reviews the quality of a product or service with respect to the degree to which its assured function—defined either as satisfying specifications given by the customer or compliance with the institutional objective — is met; (Trow, 1994)
• Quality as value for money, which measures quality with respect to return on investment or expenses and is linked to liability; and
• Quality as transformation, which describes quality as a process of qualitative modification with focus on addition of values to the internal stakeholders and giving power to them. Quality as transformation is further described as “critical transformation” and as a “meta-quality concept”.The transformative notion of quality presupposes a fundamental purpose of higher education. It assumes that higher education must concern itself with transforming the life experiences of students, by enhancing or empowering them. The transformative conception is, in effect, a meta-quality concept. Other concepts, such as perfection, high standards, fitness for purpose and value for money, are possible operationalizations of the transformative process
rather than ends in themselves (Harvey and Knight, 1996).

Quality Assurance Systems

This section explains the diverse approaches to quality which is possible for the quality assurance systems to take. The agencies dealing with quality assurance may assume one or more of these with respect to the dissimilar systems and traditions (Woodhouse, 1999).The three of the most important basis for quality assurance are accreditation, assessment and audit. Accreditation and evaluation (which includes assessment and audit) are different for their very nature. Both accreditation and assessment check the quality of the project and the final outcome. On the other hand audit concentrates on the inner procedures used by the organizations for trying to attain the objectives set by the company.


Accreditation is an assessment of if an organization or project meets a basic benchmark and qualify for a particular status. Having accreditation can have connotations for the organization itself e.g. authorization for operating and/or its internal stakeholders (Woodhouse, 1999). The main intention behind accreditation is all inclusive, investigating the mission, resources, and events of an organization or a particular project (Dill, 2000). The output which is generally given by an accreditation system is in the format of yes or no verdict (Woodhouse, 1999).Accreditation is a method which is widely used in quality assurance in countries following OECD. In the United States of America accreditation of an organization as well as the project which it is pursuing is the major quality assurance process (Eaton, 2004). Accreditation of projects is employed by about 50 percent of the quality assurance agencies of Europe on quite a frequent basis. This system is regularly used in the countries which are German speaking, in the associated countries, by the Dutch and also Nordic and southern agencies. Accreditation of companies is done on a regular basis by 22% of the agencies in Europe, e.g. by German, Austrian agencies and some in the associated countries. Accreditation procedures can also focus on QAAs; for instance, one of the tasks of the German Akkreditierungsrat is to accredit other agencies (ENQA, 2003). US accrediting companies also undertake an external review which is episodic and base themselves on precise principles. This particular way is acknowledged as ‘recognition’ (Eaton, 2004).

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