Pathophysiology Presenting Complaint Assignment
Pathophysiology of the Presenting Complaint of the Case Study
The condition presented in the reviewed case is that of appendicitis, which is defined as a condition where the appendix has been noted to have swelled in a considerable manner. The presence of the swelling and inflammation may be due to a variety of causes, with the said causes including the presence of foreign objects, intestinal worms, lymphadenitis, trauma, any kind of blockage by feces or any kind of tumor (Alvarado, 2016). Swelling or inflammation of the appendix can cause several symptoms (which can prove to be very distressing for the patients, as the observations of Anne’s case have depicted), with the most common among them being nausea, fever, vomiting and a significant degree of abdominal pain. Anorexia, muscle spasms and point tenderness of the region in question are also observed, with the advent of such symptoms being a sign of the presence of a considerable degree of discomfort from appendicitis. The various causes mentioned above have been noted to lead to the inflammation of the appendix, with the organ in question becoming edematous as well (Alvarado, 2016). The overall swelling of the organ in question has also been noted to have caused the advent of a considerable degree of pain and discomfort for Anne.
Pathophysiology Presenting Complaint Assignment
- The determination of the main aspects and features of a given case study is essential for the initiation of a proper degree of care for the patients and sufferers of given conditions. The gain of a relevant magnitude of the pathophysiology of the presenting condition is essential for the initiation of proper strategies and tactics pertaining to treatment, with the aspects of care management needing to be considered properly as well. The following study provides an intricate analysis of the case study of Anne, a ten-year-old girl who has been presented to the local hospital emergency department on account of pain in the right iliac fossa region. The details pertaining to the pathophysiology of the condition in question, as well as an intricate discussion related to the evaluation of the roles to be played by nurses in this regard, have been provided in the following sections. Herein, this study is about the overall assessment of a given case study, with a specific focus on the pathophysiology of the reviewed condition and the evaluation of the role of the nurses in the management of the same.
1. Pathophysiology of the Presenting Complaint of the Case Study
- The condition presented in the reviewed case is that of appendicitis, which is defined as a condition where the appendix has been noted to have swelled in a considerable manner. The presence of the swelling and inflammation may be due to a variety of causes, with the said causes including the presence of foreign objects, intestinal worms, lymphadenitis, trauma, any kind of blockage by feces or any kind of tumor (Alvarado, 2016). Swelling or inflammation of the appendix can cause several symptoms (which can prove to be very distressing for the patients, as the observations of Anne’s case have depicted), with the most common among them being nausea, fever, vomiting and a significant degree of abdominal pain. Anorexia, muscle spasms and point tenderness of the region in question are also observed, with the advent of such symptoms being a sign of the presence of a considerable degree of discomfort from appendicitis. The various causes mentioned above have been noted to lead to the inflammation of the appendix, with the organ in question becoming edematous as well (Alvarado, 2016). The overall swelling of the organ in question has also been noted to have caused the advent of a considerable degree of pain and discomfort for Anne.
- The propensity of the appendix in swelling considerably leads to the increase of the intraluminal pressure (which is one of the major reasons for the advent of a considerable degree of pain among the patients and sufferers), which in turn leads to the initiation of severe and progressive pressure in the various regions of the organ (as well as its surroundings). The initiation of a more-than-necessary degree of pressure within the organ causes severe pain, especially in the upper abdominal region, with the pain in question being generalized. The pain is often unbearable for the patients, with the intervention on the part of the healthcare professionals (such as physicians and surgeons) becoming vital and necessary on an immediate basis. Further inflammation of the appendix leads to the organ getting filled with pus, with the presence of excessive fluids within the appendix being a sign of advancement and progression of the condition to a later stage (Bhangu et al. 2015).
- The case of Anne has been particularly enlightening in terms of understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of appendicitis, with the main observations of the surgical team being the presence of a gangrenous perforated appendix (along with the presence of peritonitis), which is a clear indication of the advanced stage of the condition within Anne prior to the suitable surgical intervention. The determination of the conditions (as well as its overall effects on the reviewed patient) led to the completion of the proper intervention procedures in an appropriate and effective manner.
Pathophysiology Presenting Complaint Assignment
2. Evaluation of the Role of the Nurses
Growth and Developmental Theories
- The roles of nurses in the care and management of the conditions of patients such as Anne is immensely important, with the successful completion of the same being the main highlight of a proper and effective treatment and recovery procedure in the long run. The caretakers such as the nurses have to ensure that they implement their intervention strategies and tactics in a manner befitting the age and physical development stage of the reviewed patient. Since Anne is just ten years old, the nursing care to be provided in this case needs to be developmentally appropriate, with the initiation of care and management strategies and tactics meant for adults not being appropriate in this context in any manner. Havighurst’s developmental stage and tasks theory have provided relevant insights pertaining to the developmental tasks necessary for completion on the part of the people at various ages (Brown et al. 2017). The different age groups in question have been noted to be classified on an appropriate basis as well, with the observations of the same on the part of nurses and healthcare professionals being appropriate in caring for Anne in a desirable manner.
- The reviewed patient has been noted to be in the ‘middle childhood’ phase, wherein the people managed to learn several physical skills and gain a greater understanding of the world compared to the years of infancy and early childhood. However, it is to be noted that a considerable degree of mental fragility is still present among the children of this age group, with the management of the same on the part of the nurses being especially important. During the period of recovery following the period of surgical intervention against appendicitis, the nurses need to ensure that the mental aspects of the child are taken care of in as apparent a manner as the physical aspects. The presence of a proper degree of planning and management strategies on the part of the nurses and the caretakers is absolutely crucial, with the implementation of a well-planned timetable and diet being necessary in this regard (Morton et al. 2017). The administration of the appropriate medications on a timely basis is also one of the most crucial responsibilities of the nurses, with a regular monitoring of Anne’s condition being vital for ensuring the measurement of the progress displayed by her following the required surgical intervention.
- Since the people experiencing middle childhood seem to learn to socialize with their peers and superiors in an appropriate manner for the first time, it is essential on the part of the nurses and caretakers to ensure that they care for the patient in a gentle and reassuring manner, with the interactions needing to be in a helpful kind of way. The degree of focus on the aspect of gentleness, empathy and compassion has to be especially high in the reviewed case, as the patient under consideration is a young child of ten years (Urden, Stacy & Lough, 2015). Since the children of that age group also manage to develop some of the necessary concepts, the gentle reassurances and interaction methods of the nurses can help Anne in gaining an understanding pertaining to the necessity of the medications and care strategies in ensuring her overall treatment and recovery. For example, Anne has to be provided with medications such as antibiotics and morphine, with the nurses needing to continuously monitor the nasogastric tube in situ, morphine PCS, triple IV antibiotics and the progress of the IV therapy (the initiated treatment and recovery medications and interventions).
- This also helps in the implementation and administration of the care strategies and tactics in an appropriate manner, with the chances of success in this regard being considerably higher as well. The nursing theory of development is also a relevant theory for consideration in this regard, with the theory in question stating that the consideration of the aspects and features of the individual, health, surrounding environment and the ailment is the most crucial tasks for fulfillment on the part of nurses and healthcare professionals. The growth of a person from infancy to adulthood is characterized by several changes, with the nurses needing to consider said changes in order to be able to implement the care strategies in the most appropriate manner possible (James, Nelson & Ashwill, 2014).
- Anne’s stage of growth and development (as well as the features of her surrounding environment) thus has to be considered by the nurses in an appropriate manner in order to ensure the implementation of the most effective and efficient treatment, caring and management strategies. All of the main nursing strategies have to be initiated while taking care of Anne in a proper and efficient manner, with the presence of qualities such as compassion, empathy, kindness and alertness being necessary in this regard.
Family Centered Care
- The only ones affected by the onset of certain conditions are not always just the patients, with their families being affected significantly in such cases as well. The members of the families of the patient have to be treated with considerable care by the nurses and the healthcare professionals as well, with a proper degree of communication and regular interactions between them being necessary. The presence of a certain magnitude of familial satisfaction and patient pain management is necessary for the management of the overall condition in an appropriate manner, with the nurses and the caretaking professionals needing to be gentle and empathetic with them on a regular basis (LeMone et al. 2015). Regular updates regarding the condition and overall progress displayed by Anne have to be conveyed to her family members, with the completion of the aforementioned being one of the main responsibilities of the nurses regarding family-centered care. The sharing of the necessary information on a regular basis and the recognition of the importance of a family to the patient (and vice-versa) need to be considered and acknowledged by the nurses in an appropriate manner as well.
- The instructions pertaining to the care and management of the patient have to be conveyed by the nurses to the family members for a continued care of the patient (Anne) following discharge. Furthermore, the potential roles that family members have as collaborators and advisors need to be acknowledged by the nurses as well, with the initiation of the highest possible degree of care and consideration being possible upon the presence of a proper magnitude of collaboration between the healthcare professionals and the family members of patients such as Anne (Ball et al. 2016). The nurses thus have the important roles of ensuring a proper degree of interaction with Anne’s family members and enabling them in continuing to support the treatment and recovery of the reviewed patient.
Overall effects of Hospitalization on the Child and Family
- The nurses also have to be mindful of the effects that hospitalization can have on Anne and her family. Being a ten-year-old child, the emotions such as fear and anxiety are expected (especially since Anne has to be away from her family, regardless of the amount of time), with the caretaking professionals needing to ensure that they manage to mitigate such emotions in an appropriate manner. The families of patients such as Anne are also plagued by feelings of worry, apprehension, loneliness and great fear, with the nurses being responsible for providing the necessary degree of assurances for them in an appropriate manner. Ensuring the presence of an ample magnitude of communication with the family regarding the health updates of patients is necessary, with regular updates helping in the mitigation of emotions such as fear in an appropriate and effective manner (Morton et al. 2017). Anne’s family needs to be communicated on a regular basis, with the caretaking nurses in question hopefully displaying the qualities of reassurance and gentleness (while conveying the required news).
- The fears of the patient have to be mitigated through gentle and empathetic behaviour as well. Finally, the time period allowed for family visits have to be accurately conveyed to the family members as well, with the effective understanding of the overall effects of hospitalization on patients and their families helping in dealing with the related challenges appropriately.
- The importance of understanding the overall pathophysiology of any condition for the initiation of the necessary treatment methods can never be underestimated or ignored under any circumstances or situations. The determination of the main roles of nursing regarding the aspects of patient treatment, recovery, family-centered care and the potential effects of hospitalization on patients (like Anne) and their families can help in the fulfillment of the required nursing roles and responsibilities in an appropriate and effective manner. Thus, it is concluded that the proper fulfillment of the roles of nurses and the determination of the aspects of the pathophysiology of the afflicting condition is necessary for initiating proper treatment (and eventual recovery) of patients like Anne.
- Alvarado, A. (2016). How to improve the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis in resource limited settings. World Journal of Emergency Surgery, 11(1), 16.
- Ball, J. W., Bindler, R. C., Cowen, K., & Shaw, M. R. (2016). Principles of pediatric nursing: Caring for children. Pearson.
- Bhangu, A., Søreide, K., Di Saverio, S., Assarsson, J. H., & Drake, F. T. (2015). Acute appendicitis: modern understanding of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Lancet, 386(10000), 1278-1287.
- Brown, D., Edwards, H., Seaton, L., & Buckley, T. (2017). Lewis’s Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems. Elsevier Health Sciences.
- James, S. R., Nelson, K., & Ashwill, J. (2014). Nursing care of children-E-book: principles and practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
- LeMone, P., Burke, K., Dwyer, T., Levett-Jones, T., Moxham, L., & Reid-Searl, K. (2015). Medical-surgical nursing. Pearson Higher Education AU.
- Morton, P. G., Fontaine, D., Hudak, C. M., & Gallo, B. M. (2017). Critical care nursing: a holistic approach (p. 1056). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Urden, L. D., Stacy, K. M., & Lough, M. E. (2015). Priorities in critical care nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences.