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Ideally here firstly you need a title page with the assignment name, subject, your name, your student ID, who it is written for and the submission date Track changes through document, marking rubric at the end This report is based on the ethical dilemma which occurred within workplace in business or even in the educational institutes. An ethical dilemma is the commonly faced situation where the metal conflicts are involved through different actions.reference Through this report ethical situation is discussed with assumption. The people who were involved, the situation, reason behind it, my own action against the dilemma which is based on ethics are also discussed. Different theories of ethics like the deontology, consequentialism and virtue of ethics are the main ones in the ethical issues. These ethics are described through critical analyse. Later reflection on own behaviour is discussed by taking Part 1 and 2 discussion. OK a good start
Working in a trade association I have faced ethical dilemmas. I had ran into such an issue where a new director in finance of my company.?incomplete sentence.. I think you mean ‘with a new director’ I found out that the director with another executive are providing uncorrected reporting to the board of directors of the company. Though I did not have any proper evidence on the number that were wrongly showed I tried to find out the press release and other documents. After a few months I have got the papers which were sufficient in revealing their deed. But on knowing this the director and as also CEO of the organisation tried to threaten me in various methods Explain this further. Show your role in relation to the CEO . The CEO rather tried to harass me for not wanting to lie on the financials. After trying several times I got hold of ? one of the board of directors with the help of my friend who was in a big position. I confront him all the issues and showed him the financial documents and the false one.
I took the action though knowing that I might get fired or my position can be downgraded as the values and policies were in conflict. The virtues and the ethics were pushing my wiliness to stand on the right side. After reviewing all the materials placed by me, the Board of Directors fired the executive and lowered the position of the CEO. But as he had influence on the upper level he got me fired the next month. But I stayed to my moral values. In the process several other people were also get fired also ?my friend who helped me had to face certain consequences on this performances. It hurt a little but as the right thing has to be done I did it.
After having done this I felt relieved and free of burden. Though the consequences did not came in favour of me I was happy with my choice and never looked back. By doing do I was able to respect myself and convince others to do as well.
I will be able to give myself as for my deed certain employees and colleagues has to face issues over their career and job I had been thinking on the moral line. The wrong should be punished whatever the reason is. So you need to give yourself a rating as per the course outline
Normative theories are the ethical concepts which provide us help in figuring out what is right and what is wrong. Reference Which decision and how one has to act in a particular situation is defined by a set of philosophical ethics. Reference It differs from the meta-ethics as it gives the idea on the standards describing rightness and wrongness. There are mainly three types of normative ethics (Copp, 2005). So you need to reference all ideas as you go, not just at the end. If any of the above are direct words then you must include “ “ quotation marks around the words
Virtue ethics: it is the first virtue ethics which is based on the moral character of the person who is performing the act, normally termed as agent. By considering this ethical theory there are a set of character traits in the character like compassion, generosity and courage Doris, John and Stephen 2005).Direct quotes? May require use of quotation marks for any elements in the quote These traits ought to be visible on our actions (Shoemaker, 2015). The basic persisting concept behind this theory is to cultivate the virtue ethics within ones characteristics in a way which will enforce the attitudes and expression regarding the virtue traits in ones actions (Kamtekar and Rachana 2004). These set of traits let us ought to act which exhibit the virtues, though our actions might be taken as bad or might become a cause to the consequences which are undesirable.
These ethics are advocated by Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher. According his theory of virtue, it is about the person not the actions. According to Aristotle the virtue falls within two vices, the vices of deficiency and excess (Shoemaker, 2015). The virtue traits thus can be taken as in the vices of excess and the trait cowardice has thus fallen within virtue of deficiency. Aristotle also defined certain virtues such as the cardinal virtues. These virtues direct us how to it is good for ourselves to be. Aristotle referred that these virtues can be gained through practice and habituation. These virtues are listed as traditional. Through the works of Philippa Foot, Mortimer J. Adler G.E.M. Anscombe, Yves Simon, Jacques Maritain and Rosalind Hursthouse, the famous philosophers the virtue of ethics has been significantly revived over the past half-century (Shoemaker, 2015).
These virtues encompass a number of strengths which are advantageous over other approaches. The virtue of ethics does not rely on the divine law and also does not reduce ethics in actions. But objections are also coined over these virtues. The drawbacks of these virtues are:
- When virtues are vices: some behaviour can be thought as immoral,
- Applications: confusion on how to apply the theory in moral dilemmas.
- Supererogation: difficulties in acting with exceptional goodness (Moral philosophy., 2009)
- Relativity of virtue: difficulties in overcoming cultural prejudices.
Considering my deed is stayed at my virtue. Virtue is related to the trustworthiness and conscientiousness. My positive traits guides me to do the right thing. It can also be contrasted with the self-centred act as I did not sufficiently considering the deeds might get impacted on others. So you need to apply this further to your example. You need to show how this theory would apply here
Deontology:it is the second type of normative theory. These ethics are focused on type of act being performed rather than the performer. It refersthat certain types of acts are good or bad. Irrespective of the consequences these acts must not be performed(Darwall& Stephen 2002). This theory considers the factors of other’s rights and one’s duties (Moral philosophy, 2009). It has been in contrast to the consequentialism which set moral ethics over the acts on the consequences. Deltiologists hold that certain acts should never be approached or performed even if their result become to a good consequences. There are three major theories which are considered by the deltiologists. These are Kantian ethics, Divine commands and agapism (Moral philosophy, 2009).
Kantian ethics theory: Immanuel Kant was the most famous one among the dentologists? Philosophers? . The Kantian ethics refers to the reason where it is directed that we must originate moral laws from rational precepts. As suggested by Kant the moral laws are derived in the form of Categorical Imperative. The Categorical Imperative in certain ways takes after the injunction from the Bible,whichrefers to the conceptthat the individual must do things with right intention . Kantian ethics has lack of interest in the motives. Explain what you mean here (Moral philosophy, 2009) This ethics refers that we must perform our duties without thinking right or wrong as our motives are more relevant to our ethics. It refers that the person who acts out of his duty acts much better than the person who is acting out of feeling. It is said in these theories that the inclination as gives boast to do right thing can also impact of not doing right thing. Absent of inclination would not let the person to do right acts which are must be performed of duty. As example it can be said that the person who is giving money to charity half-heartedly but for his duty or because they believe that they have to do it, acts as well as those persons who donate their money out of joy, because they have sympathy for the poor or wants to do right thing (Moral philosophy, 2009). You need to apply this further to your situation. You need to show how the concepts and theories would apply
Divine command theory: This theory holds that the god’s command are the sources of all ethics. It enforces that the human beings must obey these command and believe in god’s moral authority. In this order they must be irrespective of the consequences of these acts. In this regard the most famous theory is the Euthyphro dilemma, originated from Plato’s Euthyphro dialogue. (Moral philosophy, 2009) Look more at theories taught in this course According to this theory God must have created the morality and he created humans. This theory enforced the concept that if God is the ruler over all Creation then we must obey his command. Euthyphro dilemma directs towards a question that is it good as it is commanded by God or does god gives command as this is good. It creates the dilemma as divine theorists can asserted that the things which are good are good as they are commanded by god. Taking this concepts nothing can be good if they are not being commanded by God (Moral philosophy, 2009).Are these direct quotes. You need to view the ethical elements more taught in this course
Consequentialism: by taking this theory the agents or who is performing the ethics must act in a way which would be directive to the best consequences. This ethics theory is approached to make the world a better place. It is referred as the teleological theory. This theory focused on the moral value or the goodness over the moral duties and responsibilities. (Moral philosophy, 2009) This theory does not care about the acts and who are performing them, it justify the end as means. The status of the acts is performed widely by the consequences or the results of those acts. Consequentialist holds any act morally good which has ended into good consequences though it can be marked or classified as morally wrong. The famous ancestor of consequentialism is utilitarianism specified that good acts have variety of ways. With this theory it can be said that the acts having distasteful means can be permissible in moral base such as stealing, lying for having good ends such as happiness (Moral philosophy, 2009).Are these direct quotes. Apply this to YOUR situation. The idea here is that you show how the theory applies in your specific ethical dilemma
The individual actions and motives are not relative to the actions that they are performing referred by this theory. Furthermore it suggested that the motives of actions have no relevance in the moral correctness or wrongness. As long as the action produces proper results individual intentions are not considerable. (Moral philosophy, 2009)
Focusing only on the consequences are problematic. In most of the cases our actions are way beyond our direct control as its results. It can be said that the certain consequences cannot been foreseen. In order to resolve this one have to use the moral before acting. The actions if are set to be in the moral consequences are set by the moral set of ethics then consequences can be foreseen to certain respect. In this theory the consideration is on the moral value rather than the obligations and duties.
Different theories are attached with consequentialism.
Utilitarianism: if the action is led to the happiness to most of the people it can be said to have better consequences. (Moral philosophy, 2009)
State consequentialism: it is also referred as Mohist consequentialism. It holds the actions right which leads to the state of welfare. These cations can be conducted or welfare can be imposed through population growth, material growth or order (Moral philosophy, 2009).
Egoism: it is referred that the moral person is generally a person having interest in own self. This theory holds the concept that an action is right if it has been considered as the maximisation on good for self.
Situation ethics: it imposes love which should be always the right concern for the goals. The theory indicates that those actions are morally good if create loving result.
Intellectualism: it prefers that the action would be best of it creates knowledge (Moral philosophy, 2009). As example it can be said that the teacher gives qualifying marks to the student, who is considerably having lower grades. If the teacher gives the passing mark needed by him by considering his situation as he is working to continue his studies, then it can be said that the action of the teacher is referring to the consequentialism. (Differencemakers2016).
So above points don’t really show you understand the concepts. You must apply them to your situation. You only had to do THREE but do them in more depth
The part 2 provides the elaborate idea on how the virtues of ethics are essential in life. To deal with the consequences will not be same if thinking of deontology and consequentialism. If I had acted by thinking on the consequentialism then the punishment cannot be given to the wrong doers. (Moral philosophy, 2009) The consequentialism theory suggested that if I have to at morally then I have to think on the consequences. My action affected badly other peoples’ job life as some of them has to face certain problems in the job or even got fired. But as I stayed with by virtues I was happy with my decision. Thinking of deontology the actions can be reflective of on the moral issues and consequences. My actions were also reflective of deontology as I did as my duty to the organisation. The employee duty for an organisation is based on the moral virtue of trustworthiness towards organisation as discussed on the part 2 of this report.
I was happy that I had taken the actions to stay on the good side. By reflecting those virtues on my behaviour and decision I was satisfied though having bitter consequences. Considering the Plato’s theory virtue has the four aspects temperance, prudence, courage and justice. \Justice should taken in this account. These are referred to the cardinal ethics. The decision was related to the virtuosity. This virtual ethics are reflected on my character. Through the decision I had taken my characteristics are reflective rather than my actions. The moral basis of my character is the reason behind this decision I had made. I can reflect those virtue ethics in the similar situation which is leading me to be a virtuous person. On occurrence with similar situation where people are conducting wrong deeds I will act in accordance the principles of virtues. The actions are reflective to my rational thoughts. Perhaps indicate your own values here. You can link to what virtue is here – honesty, justice
Though the virtues are hard to acquire the principles of virtues can be gained through practice and habituation. If certain person makes a habit of his behaviour in recalling the virtuous principles then the person would be effectively reflect his behaviour according in a virtuous way.
Considering the Part 2 discussion it can be said that the virtue principles are not effective in case of the proper ethical dilemmas in the business or in workplace.(Moral philosophy, 2009) The workplace dilemmas which are most prominent, are not effectively solve by the virtual principles. In accordance with my own actions the company codes of ethics were creating most of the barriers.
Through the virtuous actions which I had taken further occurrence within same place can be prohibited. It is also effective on the other employees who were in the similar working environment.
Though virtues and ethics cannot be related to the particular action or behaviour as the ethics of virtue is concerned with the person’s life as a whole, these actions taken in virtuous manner are able to provide guidance over other sorts of characteristics (Moral philosophy, 2009). Depending on the person and his/her characteristics on virtues the actions are reflective to the ethics which is also effective in case of the ethical dilemmas also.
The report shows different ethical methods and concepts of ethics to handle a dilemma. Each and every person has the personal ethics which are reflective through their actions and behaviours. Ethical dilemmas occurs while different person has different views or ethical issues while working within a same workplace. Different ethical theories are generated over years and centuries which would be reflective on the issues and bring out the reason through ethical manner. Workplace are considered as the breeding area to produce ethical dilemma. Some ethical issues are handled by keeping own virtues and vices or through implementing the theories of ethics which are mostly enforced through organisation ethics.
LIST OF REFERENCES
Copp, D. (2005). Ethical Theory. Oxford University Needs place of publisher
Darwall and Stephen L., ed. (2002).Deontology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publishers. Place
Differencemakers.com. (2016).Examples of Ethical Dilemmas.Website?[Online available at:]. http://www.differencemakers.com/swapshop/pdf/dilemma_examples.pdf.(Accessed on 10/4/16)
Family name then initial
John D and\ Stich S (2005), “As a Matter of Fact: Empirical Perspectives on Ethics,” in The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, You do not have the pages here for a reference list in a book. This is only done for journals and newspapers.
Kamtekar and Rachana (2004), “Situationism and Virtue Ethics on the Content of our Character,” in Ethics 114, 458-491.
Moral philosophy.(2009). Normative Ethics. [Online available at:]. http://moralphilosophy.info/normative-ethics/ . (Accessed on 10/4/16)Credible? Who is the author?
Proformative.com. (2014). Have you ever experienced an ethical dilemma in the workplace and what did you do about it. [Online available at:]. Perhaps some of these sources are not so credible? https://www.proformative.com/questions/ethical-dilemma-workplace .(Accessed on 10/4/16)
Shoemaker, D. (2015). Responsibilities from the margins. Oxford University Press Place
Marking Criteria for MBA8000 Assignment 1
PART 1: Description (Marked out of 10)
|· The student described an ethical dilemma|
· The description included relevant facts
· The student included their thoughts and feelings
· The student rated their decision
|0 – 4.9||5 – 6.4|
|6.5 – 7.4||7.5 – 8.4||8.5 – 10|
| Mark = 6|
Elements here could have more detail. You must rate your decision in a number as well. So some points are missing, you can explain the size and nature of the firm, who owns it, how your position interacts with this other person, give more perspective
PART 2: Analysis (Marked out of 50)
|· The student drew on three ethical theories.|
· The assignment included analysis and critical thinking.
|0 – 24.9||25 – 32|
|32.5 – 37||37.5 – 42||42.5 – 50|
This was not quite correct. You needed to APPLY the concepts more to your situation. So rather than just defining a series of ethicalconcepts, you needed to explain how and why they may apply in your Part 1 scenario. Some of this did not really show you understood it. You were to focus on THREE theories only. There was not enough analysis or critical thinking
PART 3: Reflection (Marked out of 20)
|· The student addressed all three elements of the reflection||0 – 9.9||10 – 12.9||13 – 14.9||15 – 16.9||17 – 20|
Mark = 11
I think again, the reflection covered a little self awareness but you needed more connection to the theory
Format and presentation (Marked out of 20)
|· The student provided their assignment in the required essay format, evidencing an appropriate level and mastery of written communication and referencing style|
· The assignment included in-text referencing and a Bibliography.
|0 – 9.9||10 – 12.9|
|13 – 14.9||15 – 16.9||17 – 20|
You did some referencing but I feel some areas could have more use of quotation marks. Some errors in Harvard referencing format. Work further on English
You had a number of sources, make sure they are credible. Some elements are missing from the reference list. You had a relevant issue but I think you could explain a little more your role in relation to the executive. You could indicate more details here to give it more perspective. Who runs the company? What was the nature of the ‘harassment’.
So for the theory analysis, just do three theory concepts but do them more in depth and apply them to the situation from Part 1. You need to demonstrate you grasp the theory ideas here more. Work further on English
TOTAL MARK = 53 /100