ІІ.4.2.8. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES):
Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) refers to a technique for analyzing chemical substances that use light intensity from plasma and flame or arc and spark at known wavelength to determine the concentration of a sample element. The wavelength of atomic spectral line is unique to the absorbing element, and the light intensity is directly related to the concentration of the atom. The technique relies on the wavelengths at which particulate emission of photons take place during transition from higher to lower energy state. Each substance emits a unique wavelength based on individual structure, hence used to determine the details of the elemental structure of the sample. During analysis process, a sample material in liquid or gaseous state is sprayed into flame, which then atomized and further ionized to produce electronically charged particles. When these ions fall back to ground state, they emit with unique wavelength, which is characteristic to individual element. At this point, the elements are dispersed by passing into a prism, and the reading is generated by the spectrometer.
Literature review analysis shows the use of various Traditional techniques for analyzing berberine such as high performance liquid chromatography to atomic emission spectrometry as well as polarographic catalytic wave [231- 234]. Despite this wide application, sample processing procedures using these methods are quite demanding and complex, and thereby time-consuming as well as destructive. For instance, determination of moisture content in coptis chinensis is done by physical method , yet it is destructive at the same time. These challenges explain the need for cost-effective and reliable techniques, which are also nondestructive to ensure quality determination of berberine. However, little is known about the berberine hydrochloride atomic emission spectroscopy.