7PJMN001W Management Of Risk And Scheduling Assignment


This document lists the requirements for the assignment for this module as well as the marking scheme which will be used when assessing your work.

The assignment is worth 40% of the module mark.

Hand in date: Monday 14th November 2016 before 1.00 pm via Turnitin on Blackboard.

Please note the strict university rules for late submission of coursework.

The assignment assesses learning outcomes 3, 4 and 5:

  1. critically appraise an organization’s risk management policies
  2. critically appraise the processes, plans and reporting procedures for risk management and project scheduling
  3. critically evaluate an organization’s level of maturity in embedding sound risk management in its decision-making

Document objectives

By the end of this document you should have a clear idea of:

  • What is required of you for the assignment
  • The marking scheme which will be used to assess your work

Version 0.3

1:  Individual Assignment

Assignment – 40% of module mark


Draft Assignment PublishedClive Vassell27th September 2016
Internal ModerationDania Issa28th September 2016
Subject Area Leader ReviewNick Lambrou
External Examiner Review


Write a paper which analyses risks associated with the structure of organisations and/or their partnership arrangements. This analysis should focus on three case studies which could be social enterprises, charities, public sector organisations and/or public-private partnerships. And the impact of the risks analysed should be visible to external stakeholders (thus making the risks easier to identify and analyse).

The paper should use an appropriate risk model or framework in the analysis. This model or framework could be a tool for risk perception, risk classification, risk response, risk management or some combination thereof.

The model or framework should form the basis of the critical analysis of the case studies you have chosen. And the rationale for the choice of case studies should also be articulated.

A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and/or environmental well-being, rather than maximising profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be classified as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form of a co-operative or mutual organization, a social business, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) or a charity.

A public-private partnership is a collaboration between a (national or local) government entity and a private organisation (or number of organisations) in order to deliver a public service.

A model is a conceptual tool of analysis; it typically highlights a relationship between some of the elements of the item under analysis.

A framework is a conceptual tool which provides guidance; it typically offers a set procedure to be followed in order to achieve a desired outcome.

(When using a framework for analysis, the framework is typically used as a benchmark against which to assess the entity under analysis.)

One or more of the social enterprise case studies may be chosen from the collection of social enterprises listed at the URL below (from Social Enterprise Mark). You are not obliged to use any of these social enterprises however.

Social Enterprise Directory

A number of relevant academic papers, from the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (SEJ), the Journal of Management Studies (JMS), the Harvard Business Review (HBR), and other journals, have been provided to assist in the preparation of this assignment. They can be found on Blackboard (in the Resources section).

When accessing the (SEJ, JMS and other) papers outside the university, you may need to:

  • Find the institutional login section (bottom right of the journal login page)
  • Enter University of Westminster in the institution field
  • Sign in with your university login and password.

Furthermore, a number of additional resources which may be of assistance have also been provided in the Resources section for this module, 7PJMN001W Management of Risk and Scheduling, on Blackboard.

2:  Structure of the Paper

The suggested structure for the paper is as follows:

  • Key Words
  • Abstract
    • A concise summary of the paper outlining:
    • the context (why the topic is important),
    • the objective (possibly in the form of a research question),
    • the framework or model used in the analysis,
    • The data used (and how it is collected),
    • the rationale for the choice of the case studies (and the organisations),
    • the key findings, and
    • the contribution to the domain (the new insights the work provides).
    • It should be no more than 100 words in length
  • Introduction
    • Overview
    • Research objective (possibly in the form of a research question)
    • Structure of the paper
  • Background
    • Discussion of the chosen organisations
    • Discussion of some of the issues they face which are relevant to the analysis
  • Literature Review
    • A critical (evidence-based) discussion of relevant risk models and/or frameworks
    • A critical discussion of other relevant literature and theories
    • A discussion of the nature of risks faced by social enterprises in the sector(s) of the chosen social enterprises
  • Research Method
    • How the research objective is to be achieved
    • Specifically, the model or framework which will be used to analyse the case studies, the rationale for its choice, and how the analysis will be conducted
    • The data sources to be used in the analysis, and its relevance to the cases
    • The rationale for the choice of cases
  • Analysis
    • Analysis of the case studies using the selected model or framework (as outlined in the Research Method section)
  • Discussion of Findings
    • Collation and interpretation of the findings
    • Propositions, statements summarising any new principles which the analysis demonstrates the validity of
    • Discussion of the likely implications for the social enterprises (and other similar social ventures)
  • Conclusions & Recommendations
  • Summary of the findings regarding the nature of risk perception or response in, or relating to, the case studies
  • Contribution of the paper to the (literature in the) domain
  • Recommendations for the management of the case study organisations concerned
  • Recommendations for further research in this area
  • References
  • Appendices

3:  Sample Abstracts

  • Below are three sample abstracts. Each briefly sets the context, outlines the paper’s objective, highlights the framework or model used in the analysis, and offers a rationale for the choice of social enterprises. The abstracts do not (yet) include the key findings or the contribution to the domain, as these should be added after the papers are written.
  • Sample Abstract 1
  • Ecommerce platforms face an unusual set of opportunities and threats; they tend to either thrive or die. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the same principles apply to social enterprise platforms. The paper analyses the nature and structure of three online social enterprise collaboration platforms, chosen because these platforms are socially beneficial, through the lens of Edelman’s framework.
  • Reference
  • Edelman, B. (2015). How to Launch Your Digital Platform. Harvard Business Review, 93(4), 90-97.
  • Sample Abstract 2
  • 3D printing seems likely to disrupt whole swathes of manufacturing industry and manufacturing-oriented economies. But it may offer substantial opportunities for a few social enterprises. This paper seeks to assess some of the embryonic social enterprise activity in this domain. D’Aveni’s model is used to assess three social enterprises, all of whom are exploring how 3D printing might benefit their clients. The analysis is based primarily on the content of their websites and assesses some of the supply chain opportunities and threats they face. Furthermore, D’Aveni’s work is used to identify potential future strategies for these social ventures.
  • Reference
  • D’Aveni, R. (2015). The 3-D Printing Revolution. Harvard Business Review, 93(5), 40-48.
  • Sample Abstract 3
  • Poverty is quite extensive in rich economies too (Yunus et al., 2015). This paper analyses online social businesses which target poor consumers in affluent countries. These businesses see opportunity in serving the poor but seek to share the proceeds of this opportunity with their clientèle. The paper uses publicly available information to critically analyses the partnerships made by three such social businesses using the framework proposed by Yunus et al.
  • Reference
  • Yunus, M., Dalsace, F., Menascé, D., & Faivre-Tavignot, B. (2015). Reaching The Rich World’s Poorest Consumers. Harvard Business Review, 93(3), 46-53.

4:  SEJ Abstracts

  • Below are two abstracts from papers which have been published in the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, the target journal for this assignment.
  • SEJ Abstract 1
  • Social entrepreneurship has emerged as an important research topic in the literature. This interest stems from social entrepreneurs’ role in addressing serious social problems on a worldwide scale while enhancing social wealth, often without regard for profits. In this article, we explain the forces contributing to the formation and rapid internationalization of social ventures. We use the behavioral theory of the firm to distill key attributes of social opportunities and show how these attributes influence the timing and geographic scope of social ventures’ international operations.
  • Reference
  • Zahra, S. A., Rawhouser, H. N., Bhawe, N., Neubaum, D. O. and Hayton, J. C. (2008), Globalization of social entrepreneurship opportunities. Strat.Entrepreneurship J., 2: 117–131. doi: 10.1002/sej.43
  • SEJ Abstract 2
  • Social entrepreneurship has been a topic of academic inquiry for nearly 20 years, yet relatively little scholarly output has appeared in mainstream management and entrepreneurship journals. Our review of this literature reveals that conceptual articles outnumber empirical studies, and empirical efforts often lack formal hypotheses and rigorous methods. These findings suggest that social entrepreneurship research remains in an embryonic state. Future research would benefit from the incorporation of multivariate methods to complement the case study techniques that have dominated previous efforts. Our review also suggests that social entrepreneurship is informed by common areas of interest to management scholars like entrepreneurship, public/nonprofit management, and social issues, all of which represent fruitful venues for future research efforts. Therefore, we recommend that scholars embrace key themes in strategic entrepreneurship and frame their research using established theories, such as contingency theory, creation theory, discovery theory, innovation diffusion theory, resource dependence theory, and other theoretical bases relevant to strategic entrepreneurship research.
  • Reference
  • Short, J. C., Moss, T. W. and Lumpkin, G. T. (2009), Research in social entrepreneurship: past contributions and future opportunities. Strat.Entrepreneurship J., 3: 161–194. doi: 10.1002/sej.69

5:  Mark Weightings & Hand‑in Details

Mark weightings

The allocation of marks below should be considered as a guide to the emphasis which should be placed on specific aspects of the assignment, both for students and the tutors marking the work.

Introduction & Background10
Literature review20
Research Method10
Discussion of Findings10
Propositions (statements summarising new insights)10
Conclusions & Recommendations10

 the word count for this assignment is around 3,500 (plus or minus 500) words (around 10 to 13 pages); include a word count on the cover sheet of the assignment. (The word count excludes the abstract and appendices.) The work should be submitted to Turnitin on Blackboard; instructions for doing this will be posted to Blackboard. No physical submission of the paper is required.

There is also a Resources section on Blackboard which should prove useful for your assignment preparation.

You are reminded that late submissions will be penalised unless mitigating circumstances (MCs) are submitted and accepted by the MC Board.

Where a student achieves a mark of 90% or more in this assignment, the paper may be revised appropriately (with the guidance and assistance of your tutors) and submitted to a pertinent academic journal as a joint publication (with the student and tutors as authors).

The target publication will be the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (SEJ) special issue on Organizational Design of Entrepreneurial Ventures. Further guidance on academic writing and publishing has been provided in the Resources section on Blackboard.

If you do not wish your paper to be considered for joint publication, please indicate this on the cover page of your work.

6:  Marking Scheme

MarkCriteriaLevel of Achievement








Overall clarity, focus on the requirement, and coherence

Extensive use of pertinent reference material, correctly referenced

Critical and comparative use of relevant concepts and theories and the contextualisation, and perhaps classification, of theory where appropriate

Clear evidence of independent thinking based on analytical material, yielding novel insights, and possibly the development of emergent theory, supported by appropriate evidence and pertinent existing theory

Very well written, with clear and lucid discussion of even the most complex concepts

Free from grammar/spelling errors

Publication-ready, presented in the style and format of the target journal









Overall clarity, focus on the requirement, and coherence

Extensive use of pertinent reference material, correctly referenced

Critical and comparative use of relevant concepts and theories and the contextualisation of theory where appropriate

Clear evidence of independent thinking based on analytical material, yielding novel insights supported by appropriate evidence and pertinent theory

Very well written, with clear and lucid discussion of even the most complex concepts

Free from grammar/spelling errors






Overall clarity, focus on the requirement, and coherence

Selective use of reference material, correctly referenced

Critical and comparative use of relevant concepts and theories

Clear evidence of independent thinking based on analytical material

Very well written

Virtually free from grammar/spelling errors






Focus on the requirement, clarity

Correctly referenced research material

Identification and grasp of appropriate concepts and theories

Where appropriate, the ability to apply theories

Well written

Very few grammar/spelling errors






Mostly focused on the requirement, reasonable structure and coherence

Some use of reference material, adequate referencing

Evidence of identification of some of the issues, mixture of descriptive and analytical material, some substantiation of ideas and opinions

Reasonably well written

Grammar/spelling errors do not significantly impede readability







Partly focused on the question, little attempt at structure, little coherence

Little use of reference material and inadequate referencing

Little evidence of identification of the issues, very superficial and descriptive rather than analytical, ideas presented as unsubstantiated opinions

Not well written

Grammar/spelling errors often impede readability

0-39A demonstrable lack of structure, textual reference or analysis

Poorly written

Grammar/spelling errors make it very difficult to comprehend the text

 7:  Plagiarism

The following is an extract from the university Student Guide:

Plagiarism is defined as submission of material (written, visual or oral) originally produced by another person or persons, without acknowledgement, such that the work could be assumed to be the student’s own.

If you use text, data, drawings, designs or artefacts without properly acknowledging who produced the material, than you are likely to be accused of plagiarism. This can be avoided by making clear the sources of information used (eg books, articles, interviews, reports, internet reference or government publications). All must be properly referenced, not only in a reference list or bibliography but also in the text or in a footnote.

Plagiarism covers both direct copying and/or paraphrasing with only minor adjustments. A direct quotation from a text must be indicated by the use of quotation marks and the source of the material including page numbers for the section(s) which have been summarised.

NB: An essay or report cannot consist merely of summaries of other people’s ideas and texts.

For more information on plagiarism, see:

  • http://www.westminster.ac.uk/library-and-it/support-and-study-skills/guides-and-tutorials/referencing-your-work

8:  Formatting Requirements (SEJ)

The language of the journal is American English. Your submission needs a title. Please use a 12-point readable font, 1-inch margins on all sides, double spacing, and left-justification of text and titles. Please avoid bulleted lists in the text and do not number sections. You should include at least 20 references in your work and your reference list.

Figures and Tables: Please do not incorporate your figures and/or tables into the text of your article other than a separate line, such as ‘Insert Table 1 here,’ where appropriate. Figures and tables should appear at the end of the manuscript after the references section. Do not embed other programs, such as PowerPoint, into the article.

  • Figure numbers and titles appear centered below the figure, while Table numbers and titles appear left-justified above the table. Only the first word of a title is capitalized.
  • In tables and figures, only the first word in column and row titles is capitalized.
  • Within tables and figures, a zero (0) always appears in numbers less than 1 (e.g., 0.15, not .15).
  • Table values are to be aligned on the decimal except where values differ widely, such values should be centered (this can, for example, apply to the N, R2, and F values in the final rows of a table).
  • You may have your figures published in color; however, Wiley may charge you to do so.

Title Page: Please list the full names, titles, and affiliations (with complete addresses) of all authors, including e-mail, telephone, and fax information on the title page. Please identify the corresponding author. A running head of your choice (a short title of up to 60 characters to be used at publication) should appear on the title page as well. For indexing purposes, include six keywords that describe your paper.

Abstract: Please supply a one-paragraph abstract of up to 100 words for all articles. Abstracts should provide a precise summary of your entire paper, not just your conclusions, and must be able to stand alone, separate from the rest of the paper. SEJ policy is that no citations to other works are used in the abstract.

Acknowledgements: The names of any sponsors of your research, including grant numbers, and/or people you would like to thank, may be included in an acknowledgements section that should appear immediately before your list of references.

General Style

The language of the journal is American English. Please be sure that your paper is double-spaced and uses a 12-point readable font and 1-inch margins on all sides. Your text, including titles of sections, must be left-justified. There is one space between each sentence.

  • Headings and subheadings are flush with the left-hand margin and the first line of the initial paragraph appearing under each is also left-justified. Other paragraphs in a section are indented.
  • In headings, all words are capitalized.
  • In subheadings, only the first word is capitalized.
  • Do not number sections.
  • Do not use ampersands (&) unless it is a commonly used expression (e.g., R&D), part of a universally known product (e.g., M&Ms), or included in a company name (e.g., Standard & Poor’s). This includes citations and references.
  • Commas appear before the final ‘and’ (also ‘or’) in a series.
  • Single, rather than double, quotation marks are used. When used for emphasis, words should be italicized, not in quotation marks.
  • Percent is spelled out in regular text, but a % sign is used in parenthesized text and figures.
  • En dashes (–) rather than hyphens (-) are used to denote a range, for example, 1996–2000; pages 124–155.
  • Em dashes (—) rather than hyphens (–) are used to separate a thought or phrase from the surrounding sentence. There is no space between the words and the em dashes. The sentence should be able to stand alone if the material separated by em dashes were removed.
  • Commas and periods always appear inside quotation marks, even if those quotation marks are used to signify the special definition of a word or phrase.
  • Commas are used in numbers of 1,000 or higher.
  • Indicate in the text where tables and figures are to appear, for example, ‘Insert Table 1 here.’
  • Numbers one to nine are spelled out and numbers 10 and above appear as numerals. The exceptions are when numbers refer to ratings, code numbers, or begin a sentence.
  • If a sentence begins with a number, the number must be spelled out. It is usually easier to rephrase the sentence.
  • Footnotes, rather than endnotes, are incorporated into the text.
  • The journal uses italicized rather than underlined text.
  • Blocks of long quotations are indented and single-spaced.et al. is always italicized.
  • Spell out all abbreviations at first use in the body of the article and use abbreviated forms thereafter, for example, return on investment (ROI). If an abbreviated form is used only once, it should be spelled out. This is for the benefit of readers, including students, some of whom may not be familiar with the meanings of all abbreviations.
  • A zero (0) always appears in numbers less than 1 (e.g., 0.15, not .15). This holds true for tables and figures as well as within the text and footnotes.
  • Example of SEJ style: In the United States; U.S.-based; in the U.S. economy.
  • Appendices are placed after references. If there is only one Appendix, no number is needed after it (i.e., Appendix 1).

Reference Style: SEJ uses the author-date style of citation. Citations in the text appear as name, date within parentheses, and listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. When a cited work has four or more authors, the form (main author et al., year) is to be used. Three authors should be written out at the first text citation and et al. used thereafter (italicize et al., whenever used). When there are one or two authors, always write out the names. When reference is made to more than one work by the same author(s) published in the same year, identify each citation in the text in the following manner: (Collins, 2005a, 2005b). Online citations should end with the date of access. Please be sure that cited works that are chapters in a book or articles in a magazine include page numbers. References should contain titles and subtitles. If necessary, cite unpublished or personal work in the text, but please do not include it in the reference list. The volume number must be included for all Strategic Management Journal and Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal references.

SEJ will do all it can to assist authors in all phases of their work. To help your manuscript move smoothly through the editing process please be sure that your references are complete, accurate, and written in SEJ reference style. Examples of correct style include:

Badaracco JL. 1991. The Knowledge Link: How Firms Compete Through Strategic Alliances. Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA.

Bleeke J, Ernst D (eds). 1993. Collaborating to Compete: Using Strategic Alliances and Acquisitions in the Global Marketplace. John Wiley & Sons: New York.

Book Chapters
Bowman EH, Singh H. 1990. Overview of corporate restructuring: trends and consequences. In Corporate Restructuring, Rock L, Rock RH (eds). McGraw-Hill: New York; 1–16.

Collis D. 1996. Organizational capability as a source of profit. In Organizational Learning and Competitive Advantage, Moingeon B, Edmondson A (eds). Sage: London, U.K.: 139-163.

Journal Articles
Bagozzi R, Phillips L. 1982. Representing and testing organizational theories: a holistic construal. Administrative Science Quarterly 27(3): 459-489.

Grant RM. 1996. Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, Winter Special Issue 17:109-122.

Jensen M, Zajac EJ. 2004. Corporate elites and corporate strategy: how demographic preferences and structural position shape the scope of the firm. Strategic Management Journal 25(6): 507–524.

Working Papers
Cohen MD, Nelson RR, Walsh JP. 2000. Protecting their intellectual assets: appropriability conditions and why U.S. manufacturing firms patent (or not). NBER working paper 7552, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w7552.

Child J, Yan Y. 1999. Predicting the performance of international alliances: an investigation in China. Working paper, Chinese Management Centre,University of Hong Kong.

Papers Presented at Meetings
D’Eredita M, Misiolek N, Siow J. 2005. States of mind as stages of team development: making sense of strategies for building a virtual team. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business, Honolulu, HI. Available at: http://www.hicbusiness.org.

Misiolek N. 2003. Knowledge management and the corporate university: insights from the knowledge-based view of the firm. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle, WA.

BusinessWeek. 2005. All that glitters. 16 October: 22–24.

Online Sources
Van Brundt J. 2001. The many facets of co-development. Signals Magazine 19 May: 1-6. http://www.signalsmag.com/signalsmag.nsf [6 June 2005].

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