University Of The West Of Scotland Civil Engineering

University Of The West Of Scotland Civil EngineeringUniversity Of The West Of Scotland Civil Engineering

fSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 3

DESIGN COURSEWORK 2015 – 2016

Issued: Monday 28th September’15 (Week 2)

COURSEWORK – PHASE 2

The Principal Internal Frame: Design Loadings, Computer Analyses, & Evaluation of Output

Introduction

The requirements for this Coursework Phase 2 are specified in the following Sections 2.1 and 2.2. In this Phase 2, in Sections 2.1 and 2.2(a) below, the Principal Internal Frame will be considered. In Section 2.2(b) below, the Principal Internal Beam at Level 1 will be considered.

2.1Calculations of Characteristic Loadings and Design Loading Combinations

(a) Consider the Principal Internal Frame.

For this Frame, calculate the following characteristic loading values 2.1(a) (i) to (v). Calculate these loadings in terms of the units with which they would act on the relevant beams and columns of the Frame. Information on characteristic loadings is given at the bottom of this page and on the following pages 2 to 4.

(i)Level 1 permanent load Gk1.

(ii)Roof permanent load GkR.

(iii)Level 1 variable imposed floor load Qk1.

(iv)Roof variable imposed load QkR.

(v)Wind loads Wk (on the appropriate wall elements and beam elements).

The following data, below and on the following pages 2 to 4, are for the calculation of the above characteristic loadings in 2.1(a)(i) to (v).

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Permanent Loading:

  • At Level 1, values of slab self-weight or beam self-weight will be determined by using the preliminary cross-section dimensions for the structural floor plan layout scheme from Phase 1. The concrete used will be of a normal weight.
  • At Roof Level, slabs and beams are to have the same dimensions as at Level 1.
  • Level 1 finishes: 1.2 kN/m2.
  • Roof Level finishes: use an average value of 2.4 kN/m2 (to allow for thicker screeds).
  • Ceiling finishes, including an allowance for permanent services: 0.75 kN/m2.

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Variable Imposed Loading:

First Floor level: Use data from EN 1991-1-1:2002. For this case of an industrial testing Building structure, use a characteristic variable imposed load qk kN/m2, which is equivalent to that for paper storage for printing plants, with a storage height of 1.25 m.

Roof level: for a case of access to the Roof in addition to access for cleaning and repair, use a value of 1.5 kN/m2. (This is greater than any expected snow loading case.)

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2.1(a) Information for the calculation of characteristic loadings in 2.1(a)(i) to (v) continued

Loading from the slab onto the Principal Internal Beam:

Use can be made of the shear force values given in the following table, which was presented in 3rd Year, in the Structural Engineering 1 module (in the Third Year notes for Analysis of Concrete Structures, Simplified Analysis Cases, Slabs, page Struct. Eng. 1 / 3.7).

Bending moments and shear forces for continuous one-way spanning slabs

Bending moments and shear forces
Variable Imposed Wind Loading:

Wind loading could be calculated for the building structure using BS EN 1991-1-4:2005,together with the UK’s National Annex to BS EN 1991-1-4:2005. This would take into account factors such as the location of the building, the height and shape of the building, the surrounding topography, the location and height of adjacent buildings, etc. However, for this Coursework Phase 2, use the characteristic wind pressure values shown below, which act on the Principal Internal Frame. These values are for the combination of external and internal wind pressures. The wind load is acting on the cladding and also the roof slab in the directions shown. Assume that the cladding on the building spans continuously between the columns and results in a uniformly distributed load (u.d.l.) due to wind loading on the columns.

wind loading acting
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(For a ‘flat’ roof, the drainage could be achieved through sloping concrete screeds and finishes above the roof slab.)

2.1Two Design Loading Combinations: Calculations and Drawings

(b)Consider the Principal Internal frame. For this Frame, design loadings could be calculated from the recommended combinations in BS EN 1992-1-1:2004, together with the UK’s National Annex to BS EN 1992-1-1:2004. Consideration would need to be given to a number of appropriate combinations of permanent and variable imposed loads on the floor, roof, and wall elements. However, for this Coursework Phase 2, the the following combinations of design loading, (i) and (ii), should be calculated.

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In each case, use the appropriate values for Gk, Qk, and Wk, which are calculated in Section 2.1(a). For each of the following combinations, (i) and (ii), produce a line- drawing of the Principal Internal Frame, showing each loading case, and including loading values and appropriate units on all relevant structural elements.

  • (i)Maximum load on both beam spans at both Level 1 and Roof Level (with no wind loading): 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk.
  • (ii)The combination of ‘permanent’ loading, and ‘variable-imposed floor
  • (or roof)’ and ‘variable-imposed wind’ loadings: 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk + 0.75Wk.

Note: The National Annex to BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 requires other design loading combinations to be checked: e.g. ‘alternate spans carrying 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk, with other spans carrying only 1.35Gk. For this Coursework Phase 2, this further design loading combination need not be considered.

A4 or A3 paper can be used.

2.2Computer-Assisted Analyses and Evaluation of Critical Analysis Information

(a)Principal Internal Frame: Input Data and Output Data

Consider the Principal Internal Frame. Use the GSA structural analysis computer programme to carry out an analysis of the Principal Structural Frame for each of the two design loading combinations in 2.1(b) (i) and (ii) above.

In your computer model for this Structural Frame, use a ‘pin’ for each column base support.

In this Phase 2 section of your Structural Design Report, you are required to include the following information (i) and (ii). You should include clear explanations and state assumptions and justifications where appropriate:

(i)Input Data: All of the relevant information relating to the preparation of input data for these computer-assisted analyses of the Principal Frame.

(ii)Output Data: All of the relevant computer output data from these computer- assisted analyses of the Principal Frame.

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(b) Principal Internal Beam: Critical Output Data

Consider the Principal Internal Beam at Level 1, within the Principal Structural Frame. From among all of the above output data from these computerised analyses of the Principal Internal Frame, you are to select and present all of the relevant critical output information that is required for the design of that three-span, continuous Beam. Along the whole length of that continuous Beam, this includes identifying the critical values of bending moment, shear force, or any other design parameters that are relevant to the design of the key cross-sections of the beam. As is relevant or appropriate, comment on the nature of the critical values of these critical design parameters. These selected, critical parameters will be used in the following Coursework Phase 3, in thecomputer-assisted design of the key cross-sections along the length of this continuous Beam.

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This evaluation and presented summary of the relevant computer-produced output information should include clear explanations, assumptions and justifications where appropriate.

In the Coursework Phase 2 section of your Structural Design Report, including only the relevant computer-produced printout sheets will not be considered sufficient. You must clarify to the reader of your Report all of the most important aspects of such input and output analyses information. You could do that by taking the original printout pages and adding suitable highlighting and additional commentary text, and adding annotations to drawings, etc. Or, you could further explain the printout data within the text of the Report, with appropriate cross-references to the printout pages. In some cases, it might be necessary to re-produce some drawings or data by hand (e.g. print out BMD, and add maximum BM values by hand). Or, alternatively, you might choose to re-produce all of the required output information by hand. Whichever approach is adopted, it is important that you clearly indicate all of the information that is critical for the design of the continuous Principal Internal Beam.

Coursework Phase 2 in the Structural Design Report

Your reporting of this Phase 2 design activity should be integrated within your final Structural Design Report. That final Report should be presented within an A4-sized file, or folder. The Report is to be submitted before the deadline of 4.00pm on Monday 16thNovember’15, which is in Week 9.

From Coursework Phase 1, consider the structural floor plan layout at Level 1. Also consider the design of the Principal Internal Continuous Beam at Level 1, which was considered in Phase 2, and which was then developed further in Phase 3, by the computer-assisted design justification calculations.

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4.1Final Drawings

(a)General Arrangement and Detail Drawings

In this Coursework Phase 4, you are required to produce the following final general arrangement drawings and details:

(i)A plan layout of the Level 1 floor structure, showing all columns, slabs and beams.

(ii)A cross-section of the Principal Internal Beam at Level 1.

The above drawings should show all dimensions and any other appropriate information. (Do not show any reinforcement information on these drawings.)

(b) Reinforcement Detail Drawings

Consider the continuous Principal Internal Beam at Level 1. Based on your evaluatedcomputer-produced design output from Coursework Phase 3, produce key cross- sectional drawings along the Beam spans (present as many cross-sections as you consider to be necessary). On each of these cross-sections, show the final steel reinforcement for bending and for shear.

In Phase 4, drawing paper sizes can be A4, A3 or A2 as appropriate.

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4.2Conclusive and Evaluative Report

In the Phase 4 section of your Structural Design Report, include a final, overall, evaluative conclusions’ section, in which you review the whole of the structural design process, from Phase 1 through to Phase 4. In that overall review, comment on the most

important features and outcomes of each of the four Phases. Include comment also on any significant change(s) made to the original conceptual structural arrangement, dimensions and estimates prepared in Coursework Phase 1, as a result of the design process which was justified and finalised through the further Phases 2, 3 and 4 of the Structural Design Coursework.

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Coursework Phase 4 in the final overall Structural Design Report

Your reporting of this Phase 4 design activity should be integrated within your final Structural Design Report. That final Report should be presented within an A4-sized file, or folder. The Report is to be submitted into the Engineering Box in Room E106, before the deadline of 4.00pm on Monday 16th November’15, which is in Week 9.

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