Environmental Issues Of Health Care

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This is a solution of Environmental Issues Of Health Care that describes about Developing business

Environmental Issues Of Health Care

Cultural competence and person centered care are the approaches that improve the quality of health care that have been researched extensively in the recent times. In the present study it is discussed supported from various sources Environmental Issues Of Health Careof literature related to person centered care associate with cultural competence. Person centered care leads to quality health care outcomes only with cultural competence of the nurse. Training staff on advanced technologies and improved training in various aspects of health care leads to positive health care outcomes. Effective leadership of organization with good skills of the staff will improve the quality of life in the developing countries.

Key words: person centered care, cultural competence, positive health care and role of nurse

Introduction

Person centered care

The struggling aspect in healthcare system around the world is to make sure that the person centered care is achieved. It is generally an ethical concern, and it is important that the patients should be treated as persons. Entwistle and Watt(2013) discussed on a novel insights into an approach with capabilities that characterizes person centered care. They state that a “ person centered care identifies and nurtures the strengths associated with the concept of persons”.  Thinking on the ways of approach to the person centered care and the concepts associated with it have important inferences that enables the health care staff to understand about the values and ethics and their significance of the interaction with the patients.Personal care or the patient-client-family relationship care is that corrects the form health care such that focus is not  too much disease centered or information system centered. (Epstien et.al,2010). esfamicael Ghebrehiwet RN (2011) states that expectations of the people on health care are changing and they demand for more autonomy in the health care. Patients are demanding and want to be key role if it is  their health care and are not willing to be passive recipients of care. Families of the patient want them to be involved in the health care.  Health care should be tailored in such a way that working with the patients in an business environment that integrates managing illness on their own, good nutrition, and living with health. Personal care gives a holistic approach with a human face that encompasses prevention of disease, treatment, care and support based on the voices of people. The present study discusses on different aspects of person centered care and cultural competence that improves quality of health care.

Goal of the study

The goal of the present study is to find out the ways to achieve quality health care by person centered care and cultural competence with the use of advanced technologies and the role of nurse in achieving quality health care.

Objectives

  • to achieve improvement of quality of health by focusing on person centered care in standard health care setting
  • to develop various strategies to achieve the ultimate goal of improving the health care quality.
  • defining the role of nurse in achieving quality health care in standard health care settings
  • training the nurses with continuing education in meeting the targets according to the developed strategies that would improve health care.

Person centered care and cultural competence

Person centered care and cultural competence is aimed at improving the health care and its quality but each one of them gives emphasis on various aspects of quality. The basic goal of the person-centered care is to improve the care at the individual level and focus emphasis on relationships that are personal.(Bacote,2011). The basic intention of the cultural competence strategy is to improve the  equality of health and minimise disparities by focusing on color of the people in addition to focusing on other disadvantageous people. However ultimately for the person centered care and cultural competence, it is also important to see the patient as an individual person.(Beach et.al,2006).  Cultural competence is a necessary skill set required for the nurses to achieve an effective person centered care. There are conflicts between  the health beliefs, values and practices of the patient and the medical and nursing guidelines. In this situation it is important for the nurses to familiar with the business skills of culturally competence that would increase the performance of the patient centered care amidst the cultural conflict. The capacity to collect the relevant data of the culture of the patient is the cultural skill with reference to the problem of the patient. The process is associated with taking training about the skills of conducting a cultural assessment, which is an important task of delivering person centered health care. The important aim of cultural assessment is to obtain information that is accurate from the patient which allows the nurse to formulate an acceptable and culturally relevant treatment for the health problem of the patient. However, it is also important for the professionals of health care to perform a whole culturalogical assessment in the major areas of world view and social structural factors that includes cultural values, beliefs and practices. The religious practices, beliefs, economic situation educational beliefs, social, political, legal and relationships should be well studied. (Campinha-Bacote,( 2011)

Environmental issues of health care

Environmental issues are important with reference to health care in that the human health is either directly or indirectly effected by harmful agents or disrupting the ecosystems that sustain life.(WHO,2009).Chronic diseases are escalating at a greater pace that include neuro cognitive disorders, metabolic, autoimmune and cardiac diseases. These diseases cannot only be ascribed to genetics, life style and nutrition but also may be caused by bio-toxic accumulates. Health care practitioners have significant and wider and broader significance in dealing with environmental factors in policy, public health as well as clinical practice. The initiatives of public health are recognition of the risk, chemical assessment, and reducing exposure, remediation, monitoring and avoidance. Focusing on the health of the environment, and the contributors of chronic diseases has broad implications for the society that has large potential benefits as there is an improvement in the health and productivity.(Genuis,2011).

Environmental issues and health care in India

Environmental hygiene visualizes the promotion of community health care promotion through the provision of  environment that is clear and breaking the disease cycle. This hygiene depends on various factors that include available resources, hygiene status of the people, availability of advanced and appropriate technologies, social and economic environment development, environmental sanitation associated with cultural factors, political commitment, behavioral pattern of the community and legislative measures.(Kumar et.al,2011). However, india is lagging behind environmental sanitation when compared to the other countries.(Pandve,2008). To improve sanitation it is necessary to design new strategies, interventions wherever required and follow up evaluation as per the requirement.(Kumar and Jayarama,2009). It is necessary to act upon the problem by identifying the present instution of environmental sanitation with regard to its structure and functioning and give importance based on priority about the control strategies as per the requirements for the country. The priorities are important in that the issue of water constraints, health problems due to environment, and growth of population at a rapid rate, in equality in the distribution of water resources, migration of population administration and rapid economic growth. (Kumar et.al,2011).

Health disparities

Phelan, Link and, Tehranifar(2010) state that socio economic issues are identified as the fundamental cause of the disease, the powerless and poor people have less longevity of life when compared to the people with money, power and prestige. This is particularly true with the infectious diseases, while people with lower social economic status have continuous experiences of higher rate of mortality, from disease that are aggravated by risk factors such as poor nutrition, smoking and lack of exercise. Socioeconomic status is the fundamental cause for the health disparities as it exemplifies a number of flexible resources that include money, power, prestige, knowledge and beneficial connections that protect the health.

Health promotion

Nurse has an significant role in the promotion of public health and traditionally the nurse focus on healthcare is to prevent the disease and changing the health behavior of the individuals. The clinical nursing practices, consultation, and education of patient that has enhaced the availability of health care services cost effectiveness and experiences of the customer for health care services. Health care services by nurses have many positive outcomes that include quality of life, knowledge of the patient to illness and self-management. state that the important factor that influences the orientation of health promotion is based on the individual perspective. If the health promotion ctivities of the nurse are guided by exhibiting holistic approach, they concentrate on activities such as helping the individuals or families and supporting people in health promotion activities. Whitehead(2011) states that social and health police is one concept that nurses should get the information on recommendations of WHO for health care activities.

Health promotion strategies

Harris and Lloyd (2012) state that chronic diseases and risk factors to these diseases are influenced by social and economic determinants that influence health. There is a need to address these inequalities with a combination of strategies that includes population, public health interventions that address social determinants of ill health. Primary health care is important in that it addresses some of the problems. A large percentage of the people accept the role of a primary health care provider in the preventive care. Strategies that can applied to address the inequalities can be operated at the following levels that include practice organization, primary care organization, a good integration between clinical and community based programs and broader health systems and strategies. Primary health care professionals such as practice nurses and general practitioners have an important role in identifying, assessing the risk for the patients, and offering brief intervention and long term follow up.

Personalized care approach for health care promotion

Personalized care approach optimizes self-care management for long term conditions, while research reports indicate that personal care may improve the health care outcomes. Effective education to patient requires a more tailored approach that encompasses beliefs of individuals on their health condition as well as provides strategies that builds confidence in effort to manage their health and self-care. As stated by Petrie and Weinman, (1997,) beliefs on the illnesses of the people are different and it reflects in their response to health promotion strategies, treatment and care which is why an effective health care needs to be personalized.

Future role of the nursing in promoting health care

Advances in technologies are changing the face of the contemporary health care, and there are in fact some emerging technologies that would change health practices and nursing. These are genetics and genomics, tools that are less invasive with more accuracy for diagnosis and treatment. 3D printing, robotics, biometrics, electronic health care records, and computerize provider order. However, adoption of emerging technologies is challenging and expensive.  It is important for the organizations to forecast on the required skill sets to meet the emerging technologies, and it is also important to proactively address the deficits in the skill sets in the human capital of the organization.(Huston,2013). Read more : HND Hospitality Management Assignment

Public health initiatives to prevent or to minimise the disease and impact on the society

Scientific and economic progress has drastically transformed the human existence,the successes in reducing child mortality and increasing life expectancy around the world from the last decade is due to more public health programs and more investments in public health than the curative medicines. (Lantz,Lichtenstein, and Pollack 2007).The  goal of the public health is improving the health outcomes of the population through achieving objectives such as preventing diseases, health consequences of natural hazards, inculcating the behaviors that reduce both communicable and non-communicable diseases, injuries, and ensuring an access to quality public health systems.  The most important public health is the strengthening of the health systems is the provision of scientifically valuable data that would affect the decisions and policies of the larger health system. Achieving health care is about providing right kind of care to right kind of people in a right way at a right time. Public health provides expertise that is both central and critical to the success of those critical efforts. (Simone et.al,2012). A five tier pyramid describes well about the impact of various types of public health interventions that helps to provide a frame work to improve health. The base of pyramid has a potential impact due to interventions that would affect socio economic determinants.  However, these interventions at the upper level of the pyramid require a limited contact but confer a long time protection, on going clinical care, health education and counselling.(Frieden,2010).

Factors affecting theindividuals’compliance to treatment

The ultimate goal of any medical therapy that is prescribed is to achieve a certain desired outcome which are a part and parcel of the diseases or conditions. Even though the efforts of the health professionals are large the desired outcome may not be achieved if the patients are non-compliant. This may be detrimental from the disease management perspective, while the therapeutic compliance includes not only the compliance of the patient with medicine but also with diet, exercise and changes in the life style. Therapeutic non compliance is influenced by factors that include factors focusing on patient, factors related to therapy, social and economic factors, health care system factors and disease factors. However, the factors associated with compliance are categorised as soft and hard factors and their effects while countering them may differ.(Jin et.al 2008).

The role of the nurse in relation topatient education

Hospitalization consumers a major part of the health care budget, while good  skills in education, strategies are important in the diagnosis, treatment and the management of the disease. Educating patient is the fundamental part of patient care, but poor education of the patient is the part of the compliant in the patient health care.  Problems such a miscommunication not only influence the treatment but also contribute to the reinforcement of the stereotyped behavior.  Primary care is pressurized with the rethinking of the roles and responsibilities as well as the skill mix.  The use of nurses who are trained suitably that would their sphere of responsibility may be appropriate that satisfies the demand of getting quality or the satisfaction of the demand with no compromise.(Agakhani et.al,2012).

The role of the  nurse  in setting and  maintaining  standards of care

Professional standards illustrate the competence levels of care in each phase of the nursing process, they reflect the level of performance against which the level of performance of the nurse can be compared. They provide an evaluation tool that ensures clinical safety and proficiency. Professional nursing standards provide a clinical framework to develop clinical competency checklists or proficiency evaluations for a specific clinical unit. Professional standards assist management and organisation in achieving safe staffing practices, and delegate practices.(Davos,2014).

Strategy forstandard health care setting

There are seven major strategic areas that are potentially useful in order to improve the performance in the  organizations of health care. They include standards and guidelines, organization design, education and training, process improvement with technology and tool development, incentives, culture of organization and business management and leadership. The  strategy targeted to a particular organization to enchance the abilities of performance should be informed by the root causes of the problem, the capabilities of the organization to implement the strategy and the environmental conditions faced by the organization.  As the organisations are diverse and dynamic it is a complex task to measure and improve the performance of the organization and a tool kit of concepts and methods would identify the questions that can be answered in the context of defining, measuring and improving the performance of health care delivery.(Bradley et.al,2010).

Implementing and  managing change in a health care setting

In the rapidly changing technological advances of the current situations, implementation of changes may lead to anxiety or fear of failure in nurses that may lead to resistance to change. Errors in medication in hospitals may lead to devastating consequences to both the nurse and the patient that can be reduced significantly by using advanced technologies. Change in the health care setting thus not only improves the patient care but also saves the time of busy nurses. (Karen Sutherland,2014).

Summary and conclusions

A person centred and culturally competent approach to achieve a quality health care should have such an approach that they resolve the cultural conflicts, where lies the respect for values of nurse and patient.  In order to deliver a person centred care in an environment of cultural conflict it is important for the nurses to move forward in their process of becoming culturally competent by utilising their skills at their best. Primary care is the foundation to develop a strong health care system in order to ensure positive healthcare outcomes, effectiveness, equality of health and efficiency. Primary health care provides individual, and family focused and community care that prevents, cures and alleviates common illnesses as well as disabilities that promote health. Many countries in the world have primary health care settings, but there is an imbalance between speciality and primary care with a significant shortage as well unequitable distribution of primary care work force. Primary care counteracts with the negative impact of poor conditions of health care. Cost effectiveness of primary health care has been established with few interventions that are conducted in primary health care settings and the adapting health care information systems in the primary health care settings may further enhance the financial gains. Even after  becoming adapted to external environmental forces, learning organisations are characterised by enhancing the internal capacity and learning from the past events. Several research studies have reported that focus of provider of health care should be on cultural change which is integral in implementing the person centered care. There should be a focused and intentional effort should be implemented to train the staff in such a way that they carry on their work with attitude, empathy and kindness, in an effort to forge a meaningful relationship with the relatives and families of the patient. Patient care should combine inspiration, education and training to support staff in connecting their deep seated motivations  to be a caregiver. The employee participation and a momentum to bring change envisioned during the retreats builds that patient care is not an exception but expectation. Improvement of the hospital work environment is a relatively low cost strategy for improved quality health care settings. It is possible to achieve positive health care outcomes only with better nurse staffing,with a good hospital work environment. However person centred interventions are influenced by multiple factors such as enhancing the environment, opportunities for social stimulation and interaction, changes in the leadership and management, staffing models that focus on the empowerment of staff and assigning residents to the same care staff and an individual centred philosophy of care. However, person centered care is a complex intervention that provides several challenges for the evaluation and transferability. Person centered interventions are associated with positive outcomes of the staff, improvement in the psychological status of the residents and a higher level of satisfaction.

References

Beach Mary Catherine, Thomas Inui, Mary Catherine the Relationship-Centered Care Research Network J Gen Intern Med. 2006 January; 21(Suppl 1): S3–S8. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.0030

Bosch-Capblanch X, Lavis JN, Lewin S, Atun R, Røttingen J-A, Dröschel D, et al. (2012) Guidance for Evidence-Informed Policies about Health Systems: Rationale for and Challenges of Guidance Development. PLoS Med 9(3): e1001185. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001185

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